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1 2 3 







Mieiocan cisoiuticn tbt oun 

(ANSI ond ISO TEST GHAUT r4«. 2) 




1 2.0 

IS l^ III '•* 

^ /APPLIED Ifv^OE Inc 

'653 East Uain Strnt 

RochMtar, Nao York 14609 USA 

<716) *82 -0300- Phont 

(7)6) 28C - 5989 -Fo. 

Wxt Prtfaratum of Irachera in (Dntam 
anb the ^mitb ^inUs 



Ottawa, CAirAFA 



R. J. Tatlob, FBuma, IM Cow> Amvr 


-v .^ •;, 

%\it preparation of leachtra in ©ntarij 
ani) the Slniteii ^tates 



Ottawa, Canada 




LB II I'] 


Submitted in partial satisfaction of the 

requirements for the degree of Doctor 

of Pedagogy, Queen's University, 

Kingston, Canada. 


ran i. 


i„,„t";r '■"''•""'' ","": ■'- -■' '■"—..« „r T«c„,„. 

Prorinoinl MikIpI H<^hi«,|, 

Provincial Vnmiul Hrlimb 

Kindw-gari™ Traininn Hchmila,. 

F«<-iiltii.8 „f Jilurutiim 

Afti-r-Training of Tiwhirs. 


■ 10 


f .K ''."' ""r *™™"' '^'"'■"' *"» ™« «--»•.» o, T.ACH», 

Chang,, ,n JWi,] .„,| In,|u.trial Co„,li.i„„, 

Bfglnning. of Agri'illniral Education *" 

Pl-eparation of Rural Tcachen, *2 

Rw)rganiialion of Rum! School, *» 

Conaolidation 26 

Rural High Schoola 27 



■™pSS.™'= ™'^" «^^^^ A 


a. . ,. , . ^'"' ^'"'^ *■*"• *'«' Ontahio. 
State Control of Education , . 

Normal Schoola Eatabliahed. 31 

Normal Pepartmenta in College. 32 

Department, of Education in Univenitie. ^ 

Comparnona with Ontario *• 




AZ^ion b""'"" ^^'' """ "■"' Adminirtration „ 

Aamiaaion Requyements .... *7 

Internal Organiiation *0 

CouTMa of Study 42 

OiMerration and Practice Reading *^ 

E aminaticn and Certification ** 

• » 

- k^' 

f •( )NTKNTH -CanUmu-l. 


MliM4)t'HI AND O.VrAWf'. 

CUmmm of TrmninK Hi-hiNtl tml thfir Ailtniniatrattun, 

AdmiMUM) Ilm|iiir(!iiu>ntii 

Internal ( >rKimimtion 

Coun«i» <»f Sttnly 

Obnprviition iiikI IViftice Tpiu'hinK 

Kxtttniniktton unil rtifit-tttiun 




CL' .( (if Truininfi Srhiioiji and their Afiminwtnition. , 

AtlniiMum Hfqiiirt>mf>nt8 

Internal OrRanlzutiitn 

CoiirHra of {Study 

Obwrvdt ii)n and Practare TtwehinK . 

Exaniinatti.n and Cn ificatlon 







Prcparai'idn or Hitral TEAniERH in the Unitkd ^atcb. 

CourMH for Uiiral Teachem in Ht*^ to Normal Hehixda 

County Traininft Schools for Rural Tea^hfru 

Prrparatinn of Rural Tcachoro in Rcki Hinh Hchoob 






The books consulted, or from which quotations have been 
taken, are hated in the bibliography on the last page. WhTre 
figures appear m brackets throughout t! ,■ work thfy indicate 
references to the books mentioned in the bibliography. Tht 
is "^frt^nT "■*' 1 1'^' ^"^ """•'^'^'^ 3 in the list, which 
2- ^W 9,^T" f"* ^''"'"'*"°° '" ^PP" C"""-!'" Similarly, 
LL^n I I^ff".*" /"«« 21 °f *•»« Report of t.e Minister o 
Mucation of Ontario, for the year 1897. 

Page 31.-Chapter IV should read Chapter In. 

The Preparation of Teachers in Ontario 
and the United States. 



Aoenc:es Eufloted m Ontario for the Preparation of 
In Ontario extensive provision is made for the preparation of 
teachers. Every position in the schools, from Kindergarten to 
University, must be filled by a trained teacher if such is available, 
and no one can receive a permanent certificate as a teacher without 
scholarship, pedagogical training, and experience. The academic 
and professional courses are distinctly separated; the professional 
training being acquired in special schools, after the acquisition of 
academic knowledge in the High Schools or Universities. Teachers 
of different qualifications are required for the various grades of 
schools, and hence there have been established three types of 
training schools for teachers; the Provincial Model Schools, the 
Provincial Normal Schools, and the Faculties of Education in the 
University of Toronto and in Queen's University, Kingston. 

In the High Schools, special courses are provided for those 
who are seeking to enter upon the work of teaching. Students 
who desire to attend a Model School must pass the examination 
known as Entrance to Model Schools, at the end of a two years' 
course. Those who wish to attend a Normal School must com- 
plete this course and continue for two years longer, when they 
must pass tlie Entrance to Normal Si^hool examination. A further 
course of two years prepares them for the Entrance to Faculty 
examination. There is still another way in which a student may 
proceed in his preparation; he may take the matriculation course 
in the High School anl^ secure a degree in Arts from a University 
after an attendance of four years. This degree will admit him to 
the Faculty of Education. He may have specialized during his 
University career, and then upon graduating from the Faculty of 
Education, he may secure a Specialist professional certificate. 
A holder of such a certificate usually becomes a teacher in a High 
School or Collegiate Institute. Prospective teachers who attend 
the Universities take their courses in Arts with students who will 
enter other professions. 

I ! 

honoS'r" rCX: s^it^-'tiXrS'r^' - -tter what 
teacher without having attended snm*'^'',**' >''* « position Ma 
An important feature of the sv,t?m f?^^'.'"""' tawing sch" I 

teachers for nterim an^\, """"*' Normal SchooU tt„;„ 

High School Assistants' certificates ^''"' ^'''''= School and for 
Provincial Model Schools. 

apar/^faldVbt ScLKln^'^T'",? «"<''' ^''""ty to set 
County Model School for the nrSL'*1 j'"?f."''an centres as a 
teachers. For severRl „1„. f? ^^'""a' traming of ThirH nil. 
inexpensive and ^^puli^^'^^.t^^^^'y ^"'^'^ Schlls p^vilS''^^ 
prospective teache^s'^ However favrSnT'^.'"* ^<"°« t'«i^^ f^ 
schools were so defective ^ndth/ J""^ ?* '''« f«M<l that thesi 
f^.''"°<'%«o unsatisfactor^^tf,/^;,^ ";f 'onal ^ 

y- 6)- In 1909 the adminLtratin^ „f ?l **""" ''^''e discontinued 

Gnl\l 1°' '''^"' ^'•hools situated at OhSh. ^''%? "" «' P^sent 
Wltm ^'^f *'"'• Madoc, North B^^^fe'^'jfj'fon- Cornwall, 
nimam These Provincial Model S^hyV ' J^^nfrew, and Fort 
organization and administration T. ♦?.??'' *" """h superior S 


B.on IS the Model EntTance ^ertS at""? '"-'Quirement for 7dmiV 

able SZdVnl: trJet^tll^Z ""•"^'•■* '^ '""'^^^ P-fer- 


agree to teac'h KSo ff-'t Stf*' "''° i%aSteTmu"s? 
A student's success at the end of th! » ° ^^ *"<"'• graduation 
the report of the princioal and „ V^i ^'^'°" depends partly unZ 


answer papers are valued by the principal and the results reported 

f^^if"^ -?E"iT, ' '''""i «™"*' *" ""«'' successful candidate a 
Limited Third Class certificate, valid for five years under certain 
clearly defined restrictions. The holder of such a certificate is 
not entitled to teach in any school until the certificate has been 
endorsed by the Minister of Education as valid for that school. 
When a board of trustees is unable, after making every effort 
through advertisement and the offer of a fair salary, to secure the 
services of a First or Second Class teacher, the Minister of Education 
may, on the recommendation of the inspector concerned, make a 
Third Class teacher's certificate valid for their school. The aim is 

^Hi ff^f^ »^S"'5''^r "' *''*^ '"«' K™''" '•'''■tifi<at..s, and statistics 
indicate that Third Class teachers are rapidly disappearing. 

Besides these Provincial or Autumn Model Schools, the 
FnSifl™iS' u J-ducation makes provision for the training of 
English-French teachers by maintaining four English-French 
v.„H I hmI "*S"*'''^ ^} O*.*"^"' Sandwich, Sturgeon Falls, and 
Vankleek Hill. Formerly the teachers of the English-French 
schools were expected to take the ordinary qualifying examina- 
tions that were taken by teachers in English schools. Several 
investigations revealed and emphasised the fact that English was 
indifferently taught in these bi-lingual schools, and that properly - 
qualified teachers couW not be secured for them. In order to 
meet this difficulty, the Department of Education established, 
some ten years ago, an English-French teacher-training depart- 
ment in connection with the Plantagenet High School. In 1907 
this school was removed to Ottawa, and in 1909 a similar school 
was opened at Windsor, which Tvas afterwards discontinued. At 

F!f»1?»rr r^^i^^^l !'"'?•"<'' ^ ^^">^y intimated, four 
Enghsh-French Model Schools, all supported entirely by the 
?f£^""T* 1 Education. Their purpose is to prepare Third 
Class teachers for the work of instructing the pupils of the English- 
^ench schools of the Province, and at the same time to improve 
the academic preparation of these teachers-in-training. The 
students are for the most part French who possess the ability to 
speak and write English with some fluency. Great difficulty is 
experienced m securing an attendance at these schools because: 
(1) a relatively small proportion of French children attend the 
^?ii„ ?'Jowr T the necessary academic preparation must be 
«nH w„ 1- u'- " '*!™J»"'i f" young people who can speak French 
and English is great, both in commercial and clerical pursuits. 

The conditions of admission, courses of study, and regulations 
ModT^chnnf"" n'r '"fr^^'. ^?'? "^'"^'^ those of the ft^vinc Ta 
sWctt ,Hh», A Of*"" *•>" "dmasion requirements are not so 
strictly adhered to m the case of students entering the English- 


examination in EnKlSianH p~n i, ' ™"^"sat'«n, and a written 
^polling. During X cou?8e ™„«irf ^T""' ^"'PO'ition, and 
mstructing tl,e «tudont« ?n "^hS „7 t^i!h?"''l^'''?- f S'^"" f° 
!h.l,lren. The course extenrfrom SpLI^ '"f ^"^'"^ *" '"'""•'h 
'ng Juno, and the arrangmentHTnr ill •'''.•*"*""*" ^ 
are almost the same as in the cl^e of th» ^"'""'? ^J ''"rtification 
A full «, , , u Model Schools. 

French childr wilf ,^,'^3° bvTf""'- '" '^"^^'^ Engli* to 
report on the condition of English Frri'"*^ u*° ,'''• Merchant's 

by D?Cl'l^"'tL'?''''1-h1Kr^''--r^ 
opened in connection with th»i„ l".*^ T" " "odel School was 
giving practical exempl^cation of Th """" ■ ^?' *''« P'-^o^" " 
stu, ents of the Norma School Th" &"""P'<'« "f teaching, to 
to give both academic and nrnfl'i ,'! '^"f""' ^''hool continued 
Class teachers unt" "itss Th^X ffiX."^'',^'"^''"'' S»""d 
Institutes relieved the \r^,™ i i? l "^" Schools and Colleeiate 
(2: 1885,- 76).''This'' eparatTon of TI)'' ?'"' «?'i^™ie work 
preparation has ever sK b^„ on/'?''.T"^ 'J"'" professional 
teacher training in Ontari^': XXrt p^e' i^gT""^ ''"''"'- "^ 

a Mid^/il!!!''„i°Xq^eX''add:^'''^'' ""^ °P^-''' ^ -hich 
twenty-five years the Normal Schl^ *t "nP"'^*''''' ^''l'""'- For 
prepared all the Second pL^ff ^f^™''^"' Toronto and Ottawa 
of the Province a^ d„r^„ V""''''*'"' '<"■ ^^e elementary scS 
made to .adop" th?t reIcat?oU,TethT^ PossibleTffort wi' 
the traming of Ontario teachers In Tq^°**.?°^ "PP'^ ">em to 
was established at London tT^' * :? ^^'^.^ ^^"''^ Normal School 
of the Province ^°°' *° "■*"* ^^^ '"^ds of the western fwrtion 

Coun^fSl'sVor rntor ^iX'^'r' """'- "" °f t'^e 
replaced them by four new Normal thn?"'.'"''"*.''^ Education 
Hamilton, Peterborough and Shn%"'""*^'* "' Stratford, 
study of the seven NofmarSchoolfw^?' ^" ^■'^ *'"' """"^ "^ 
the details r' each subject brinrpl„h f'^"Ka°'2ied and enlarged, 
of studie. ..repared by the D^^l^em "'? ^"/'""'^ '° " 'yl'^bus 
to make these schools more SS.t^Hv''"''?*"'"- '^ °rder 
employed so that now each sehoS s sun-» -"i"* '*^'"'" ""'^ 
^Jr^^'^'^^^o^i^ts in chCe of eadfof 1^ '>7«.'''' its staff 
-ents: Mathematics. Natural feiltXiL'h/^lIrKC 

pn, and 
iven to 

!liA to 


ol was 
Me of 
ng, to 
es of 




n to 



; of 

I 11 

i J"''*''*'; '"iportant additions were made to the staff of each Normal 

; School in 1915, on account of the increased attendance of students. 

* The Normal Schools are controlled dirw'tly by the Provincial 

, Government through the Department of Education, whose official 
head, the Mmister of Education, is one of the members of the Ontario 

i cabinet. They are thus .seen to be essentially government schools; 

I the buildmgs are owned by the Province and the equipment, ailmin- 
istration, and mamtenance are provided for out of the Provincial 

I treasury through the Department of Education. The Department 
appomts the teachers, pays their salaries, establishes standards of 
admission requirements for students, arranges the course of study 
authorizes and prepares text-books, inspects the schools, directs the 
preparation of the most important final examination papers, and 
issues the certificates to successful students. (10: IS). 

A candidate for admission to a Normal School must make 
application to the Department of Education and must furnish 
certificates of academic standing, age, physical ability, and character. 
He must agree, if successful in obtaining a certificate, to teach 
in Ontario for at least one year after graduation. Thus the entrance 
requirements show the utmost uniformity since all students have 
covered the same High School courses and passed the same cx- 
auiinations. The students pay no fees, but they must provide 
for their own living expenses. Students who, in addition to 
holding Normal Entrance certificates, have taught for at least 
one year on Limited Third Class certificates are designated Grade 
A students; all others are known as Grade B students. 

The organization of each Normal School provides for a staff 
consisting of a principal, from four to six departmental masters, 
and several instructors of special subjects. The principal and 
masters have charge of the departments of Education, English, 
bcience, and Mathematics. The special instructors, who devote 
°"'y P"* 0' theu- time to the Normal School, are responsible for 
the subjects of art, domestic science, manual training, music, 
physical traming, and writing. The Department of "' I.ication 
Qjes not demand any specific academic and profess?. quali- 
hcations as essential for appointment to the regular s . The 
object is to secure teachers who are eminently fitted by nature, 
training, and experience for this difficult work; hence the appoint- 
ments are made with the utmost care from the ranks of the tnaching 
profession throughout the Province. 

Since the Normal Schools are under the control of the same 
central authority, a uniform course of study is prescribed for all. 
Ihe details of the course are definitely set forth in a special syllabus 
issued annually by the Dcpartmfmt of Education, In general it 

I :'! 


is arranged in two main divisinna . .k ^- , 

»rt of teaching. In the earli.r H*.'„ r ". J'™i'*"'»' «°""e m the 
tendency waslo present trtW^ofoJ''* ^?™«'' S<-hool8 the 
and methods in a very formal W the J^h"?*'""'. ?'«»'«<'ment, 
notes of lectures given bnheStera Th™ '""*/"« '''"'"'^t* 
il'"T"T ^'^ discussion of pr^ncWes 1^5 Pr*"' '?"'^''?'=y '" 
concrete educational problems It ii LTii .i*^u"' aPP>>cation to 
have a thorough understanTnc nf •T'' ""?* students v,ho 
than those who are bSed^th S7'h' ' " '"'™""' 6«"«° 
for all possible contingenci™ The omZ K "^T""" ""<' directions 
expert officials of the DeDartmlnt l^ '"f ''?™ """'''ed out by 
of the Normal School stairr ° consultation with member 

consiS" of 'feVVSioTal^^i^bf L"*° '?" «™r ^ «-"P I 
school organization and man^ement .nTh"*''" "( education, 
Group n comprises subjects fftfr!.' ,1^ ^'ti"^ °^ education 
and academically-readiM iterature T"'""''"' ^^^ professionally 
composition, spiling, ^tin« and hiTlT'"^''' °™' »"d written 
of Group III are aS b^h pTofiaran'HrH*^- ■ ^he. subjects 
geography, science, hygiene 3 htf «'^ademic-arithmetic, 
subjects which ■ are trefted nri^.i„ m '^- ^""""P ^^ includes 
emphasis upon method Thee" s^bt^u'^ ''™'^'""'<' *'*•> '""^ 
physical culture, nature study manualTr.- ^''""u*"^' T"""' niusic, 
agriculture, algebra and geomeTit mV„ '"*^'i',?"l''''°'d science 
and academic work is incE i^ih^^T"' '^" *•>« theoretical 
to the«e, provision is made for oSserv^H '"" '^"T' '" addition 
criticism. It is generally conceded thftfS' ''""'I"''' teaching, and 
lem of the Normal ochools^a tn !^ K ""? ""f* important prob- 
by applying principTc^to a greTt ^"rTtv V'T^''"' ^/^''"^ 
that graduates will be able to solve ^'th « f '"^' conditions, 
problems of their own sch^l r^ms ''""fidence the complex 

fore,?hrmt t^l^LjJ^^T^^l^l [-"• """»-■ »"-- 
vatjon and practice teach W This nh^el"'"""'?..'' *'"' °^'''- 
of having methods of instruction tLtf -^T' '''^ Possibility 
science of education; of havinrsoeclAl^' *k ^^^""^ "^^^ "'^ 
subject that harmonize with LenerK nil ''''' '? ? particular 
practice teaching in accord Jth I? P".ncip es; ana of having all 
vation lessons afe "augh? by^he Nnr'-S,?""' f "'""'■ ^he obser- 
of pupils brought in f^ the ^rSchod" *?«'?''" u«'°"P^ 
the practice school in their own cla«fr)!L-.u' ""^ ^^ teachers of 


- any case the ^o^J^r^t^f ^T^f,l^'^^r^:-^J^^^ 


artificial and different from those found in the ordinary gehool 
room. The worlc of observation would be much improved by 
arranging for contmuous visits to regular rural and urban schools 
where the students could sec the work of a given class carried on ' 
from day to day. ' 

Originally all the practice teaching was carried on in the 
Norma Model Schools established as integral parts of the two 
Normal Schools at Toronto and Ottawa. Recently the attendance 
of students so increased that the Normal Model Schools could no 
longer provide sufficient accommodation for practice teaching 
To meet this contm|!ency, the Department of Education entered 
into an agreement with each local Public School Board concerned 
to furnish a certain number of specified class rooms for this work 
upon the payment of an annual grant, the most of which is paid 
to the teachers upon whom the extra work devolves. These teachers 
fffifi * .! D''MP'*i''u *? l*"" Department. This plan of having 
affiliated Public Schools has given good satisfaction and is- much 
more economical than the Normal Model School scheme. It is 
followed entirely by all the Normal Schools except those at Toronto 
and Ottawa, where both plans are in operation. !t is extremely 
■-iportant to have the clearest understanding between critic 
teachers and those who are responsible for the teaching of methods 
and principles, otherwise immature students will be hopelessly 
bewildered by the real or apparent discrepencies between instruc- 
tions given m the Normal School and criticisms received in the 
practice school. During the time allotted to practice teaching 
the Normal masters are relievea of other duties, so that one master 
usually observes several students teach each day. Freouentlv 
he IS present for theu- criticisms and either leads in the discussion 
or offers suggestions; he may confer with the c- ic teacher in 
estimating the value of a lesson. Formerly the sti .;nts remained 
passive while the cntic teacher magnified the errors and defects 
of their lessons bu'; failed to give any sympathetic or helpful 
encouragement. At the present time most critic teachers have a 
new cc.nception of their responsibilities, the student being com- 
mended for his successes is led, by question and answer, to see 
wherein his lesson violated well established principles and their 
apphcation. In a word the criticism is constructive not destruc- 

The final standing of a student is determined by the combined 
result of his sessional records, his observation and practice teaching 
reports, and his final examination. Forty per cent, of the tot^ 
marks in the subjects of groups I, II, III, and IV are assigned to 
sessional work, and sixty per cent to the final examination except 
for some slight variations. The final examination papers in 


and are uniform for all th" S« -Sf "''"'*? "' »'»' ""''Jects, 
group IV are prepared by the mastorH }Zt '"'"'"'■'"tion papers in 
The marks for tL praeticrteSnL ly^.":^"'*''''^ »'''' »"hjcct« 
the cntic teachers mo«i im^ J^ * "I'' '"'■"'"nm are assiirnwl ht 
Bfteen or twentyle^' ""Portanoe being attache,! T the |<^^ 
the masters respLiK the vartr T^""^ "" '™<' "ocally by 

orstxr ''-^ -■ -?L-n!rnU7jr;. thi-femf ? 

or June examinS obrainl ttll?™*** ^ r""^"' •*» theK^ or 
subject and «ixtyper^.e„ro7tt*4i^:;armal'-^ marks i„ eac" 

provided he is twentT^ne yearrjr "* ^'""'"^ Class certTfieat" 
valid until he reaches that ^e U T' " "" '"'""m certi6cate 
permanent on application Tletl^f^^'^'^"''' ""^y be made 
the June examination and ^ p^f^™ V*""''"'"''* are required for 
completes his examiwtfoni U^^at.? «*"<^<'"t who si^ccSuny 
certificate valid for two ye^s Thf "".'"t<Tini Second Claw 
permanent at the end of t^ „„ ^" •^'''•t'fi''ate may be mad^ 
eertmed by the inspector JX'^Thom'"h''T'''' /^P''"'"''' ■ "X 
the teacher is then twentv-one^JIi ,''*' '"'•* '"ught, provided 
for granting Limited TWrd cC^'^ffi °' ^f Provision is made 
a specified lower standinetha^th * •'^!*^.^ '"''"dents who obtain 
ment of Education h^'iZ ' T^ described. The Denart 
abolishing the E^ter^examfnat'r'tT'K" ?'"' advisabUky of 
^ite on a final examination in June '"'^'"^ "" candidat^ i 

^'"d^rgarten Training Schools. ' ' 

^epa£tl?o^f r^Sly-'^^utp^dtr* '^T '"^--^ ^"^ 'be 

thewhole scheme of ktde„ar Te/*t?''"- °' Education re^rganS 
lishing Kindergarten-PrfmaTc ™ ^JT'Kiw'"''!.'' ^'"'^ '" cS 
the Kindergarten from the FiVsT lv„i^ "^P 'be gulf separating 
order to ensure the maturitv .n^ j"" .°' 'be Public School In 
garten teachers th7 t,'^ """^ ""anemic efficiency of the I? ^^ 

™L,*il.'^ '.""""k H^r'?'"'."'"' kind'-'Wrtonor is to !«• a qualifiod 

those teach^.i. DurmR thp rcnular afa.l..mi,- year thr couZ t 

rrh" /'';.^""/"*V^"™"' ^^■'"»'- •»" »"'»"'" BoiioL have 
hecn hpld at London, Toronto, and Ottawa. 

Facullies of Education 

The trainins of teachers for seoondarv aehools'hcmn when 

in'l&^s'Thr"*''""'""' tt-VY"''"' «™">""" «"''-' in Toronto 
m 1858. Ths was supersedexl in 1883 by the estalilishmenf nf 
Tra, Inst-tutes in connection with five of the I,." (To"eKilt™ 
m the rrovince. The Training Institut.^ prepared l.oth First 
Class Public School and High School t,.acl.Prs. (2: 1885- 28) 

^ ?8m" ^I'-Vf^f P'"™ t" '*"■ S"''™' "f P'"la«o,o. at T.ronto 
n 1890, which faded on the practical side and wiS replaced bv 
the Normal College at Hamilton m 1897. Since 1907 the nresen^ 

catTh°i 'r"'"^ "*'' ^?''"''' *««'^''ers in the Fafultk' o^lu 
cation has been in operivtion. 

«.*.Ki?i,"'?'''' *"* recommended that Faculties of Educition be 
established in connecti.u with the University of Toronto and 
Queens University, to replace the Normal College. The funda- 
Zrelh'5""''"'''' H"f 'y'"? *•>'' recommendatioS is that "n all 
thoroughly organized professions, the professional training in 
carried on side_^by side with the liberal training in Arts Up to 
t^» Kii"M'fK'''"/5 '"'" .''»' "»'y ^'•eption, for the prospective 
teacher left the University in order to undergo his proSsbna^ 
training If we understand the service which a Uni^ers tyThoTJ 
?or tnifh »'>''/?'"<' /".stimulating comradeship, hSp fng love 
for truth, and inculcating a spirit of reverence then it seems 
wise to bring under its influence as large a number of teachers T 
poss ble. Candidates for afl other professions receive their 1^1^ 
ing m connection with f.e be,, that can be provTded in the Arts" 

?f Facitm ''• /^^^i''?"''' ?"' *•>" t^'^-'her have the same prWilege' 
If faculties of Medicine, Law, and Theoloev exist J inV,.!S=i 
Sntan^' ? University theA .ould itnot'l'f^X 'X.nZ^^X 
OiUario teacher and the profession generally to be trained on the 
««ne level with members of other professions? Indeed, teaching 
will become a profession only as larger and large- numbers o1 
teachers come under the influence of the University The FacuUv 
of Education is, then, the University's professional school of edS 
tion. The transfer of the functions of the Normal College to the 
Universities was effected in 1907. » to tne 

arfoPtK'^^^r*™" "/-*'■'*'''' .*'*«"'*y "f Education providce for 
^ edu'crtln ^^h'^ " Ilmversity professor; an associate profes^o 
m education; and several lecturers on methods in the various 


h.-a<i master alao ranks ^ an mhopU. ^"'V'""*!' School., whose 
of Education roeeiv.s a ^aHv 1^ ZZt'^' -^^ ^"^""^ 
ment through th. D..partmJ^,ro7 eZ«Uo„^ t!,"-"'' ^^°^-'-"; 
Btudy are approved by thoDoDHrtmHnTnf p. .•^'''' ™""''«" "f 
the oertifirates to the wacffi™ Th ^''".'■« '"n. whieh issue* 
resemble those of the Wma? s?.h,JSl admusion requirements 
must f«. of ,l,e minimum a™„f „ „' C^ S'tl!''"* « .^■""''i'''"'' 
wssion, and be the holder of hi»l?»Vr.i- *'"".?''*"'"« <>' tlie 

-fcting of one of the fotwl^? "a c"; rat,?"?"'''''?'""'' '""- 
Arts or Agr culture aDDroverl T,« .k \™V™'^ate of graduat, ,, n 
full certificate of Entrant t^^h" ^""f^' "f E<lucatio (2) a 
I>,partm.nt cftaucatTrw^ ti gr^ '^ f Education, ^A^ 
to any student who does not agreeto tS i„ th ""t" ' certificate 
during the first year of his Tbiemi^f * 'he schools of Ontario 
student can be granted a nertffw't *™''*""K <'tperience. No 
subject. ^ *^ " certificate unless or until he is a British 

Each Faculty of Education offers the following courses- 
High Schlr/itrt^'cSt^" wlir First C,„^„, i„,„i„ 
student who has been dulv aSJ "5 ""J^ ^ *»''«■• by any 
in a Public or Higl^ School ""'' '''"' "'"" »' 'e^ohing 

AssisSntt-"certra?:^, XTma^t^taken'rL" .««•■ «<">-' 
graduates in Arts or i^^cultur™ ° ^^ «l<iinaU who are 

hono!^^^ar^'°o'f rSred'uS??^' wtt '^T" »° 
least second class honours in anv of th. 7'ii • ^"^^ *»^«° »* 
Cl^-cs, English and History^^Utn'ti^^J^ ^SS; 

Sepa51Vh''X^;X'''fel°tat^ttr " " ^"^"« " 
Specialists' standinTor must have il th" course must hold 

general proficiency Tou^efrLp^TorsP'"''' ***" University 

areol,l^°rrc^ael\o'Sa'lSrl'^°^V ^'-^ — 
University and a First a^ p..m?„ If k* ? "^^^ f™" " B"«sh 

Assistant^' certificate ''" ^'''"~' °' " »«»> School 

Facui?^ of TduciSi: Tor^to'^o H°' 1°"^"°''' ---• ■ ^he 
of Education, a o„e"s IX^ °'ihe"n^' '"'■*•**'* »«Partment 
for ordinary certifi.aL'in =^Z tt^""^l:^-^^^^Z 


houBrh((l<l Kciiii... ImiMinn which 

in the aplvniliilly cnuippid 

an intrgrnl part of the of TurVpiit". 

may he saiil tc. Imvo pvo vcd from a mriiKi .,7 ..vJI , ™ .1 ",,'"" 

uaiiy th,. d,.f,.,;t, and w,.akn.^w^hV;rni;V.a';;r;:^ 

so that notwith, anding th. criti,i»m« „f ,. Fow who would r?vrt 

Va» a,v°tZfor thTtrl"'"'"''' ',' '" """'."""y '•™-'"'' th»t <)nta o 
nas a system for the traming of seeonc arv teaehers that will rom 

?oTntl^'°"""''^ '" '■"'•''•'"'■^' ^'"^ »'"'» d"vt"by any'X" 

The After-Training of Teacher*. 

.n-l X'"'/"";!?''H'^i°.'''"' *''^*«~''' t*" Provinrial Normal Schools 

meaiL of frli^ ?h ^"'T"" 7A'*'*"^ *'"" r-f^'arly ^ccogniy^' 
means of traming the teachers of Ontar n. Hitherto the emnhasi. 
ha» been placed upon the preparation of tl,,. teacher before eXrZ 

i^^.*^'i! '"^"f? ^""{^"^ *''*' »"•''' 'raining i/but pM mini^ 

?"on the^lhouT u «r ^1 " ""*"' '•><• entirelrofessioSal pTo^S 
lion mey should ultimately receive. For many years Insnectors' 
vwits, Teachers' Institutes, and more rwently, SummerXhoids 
have rendered substantial service in thi» after-training but it » 
PeZ™"!!: V^r? "", wholly adequate to meet modern n.'c.l 
Perhaps m the future the young teacher's yearly programme w^ 
be arranged somewhat as follows: forty weeks actual te^Mnan 
school, wo weeks incidental vacation 'ihToughout the y"i^foir 
weeks of definite summer vacation, and six weeks' attemknceaJ 
a summer school. For more mature teachers attendant at I 
rtrav^rortv^'* '"' 'f^lf "" "•' l^"'"""* in'a"r chool' 
XwovemJnt '^Th! l**" """" P^J'^'" ""^^ »' professiona 
be aTZZp nf I P^'^'-^^'on of a life certificate should not 
m».?,!^^ .^ ° u" permanent position whose duties b.come 
matters of routine, but every teacher should know that unless his 
teaching efficiency s constantly increasing, he^ll cerSv be 
E£iXtp"mtT ^'^ "" -l^-ntl/sought to Crot hll 

pofe'S:nal"X"arSn''of^'irhet It"" °' "?''™- '" 


Provincial Model Si-hooln 

(a) Limitwl Third CIbh rcrti8c«U«. 
(i) Oiiitrict cprtificstm. 
rtovincijU Normal School* 

(a) Permanent Second Clan certificat.-s. 
{*) Interim Second CI»M certificBtcs. 
(c) Limited Third r » ccrtiBcatii.. 
Facultieit of Education 

(a) Interim High School AwistanU' certificate.. 
6 Interim Fir.t Cla» Public School certificate. 
W Interim High School 8peciali.U' certificate.. 
W Public School Inspectors' certificates. 
(e) Degrees in Pedagogy conferred by the universities. 


knar ScIimI \^ 



The Rural School Problem and the Supply of Teacheiis. 
In the preceding chapter a brief cutlini' has been given of the 
various agencies employed for the preparation of the teachers of 
the Province. The vital question forces itself upon us-does this 
whole machinery of supply meet adequately the demands' This 
IS an easy question to ask but the answer cannot be given by a 
mere yes or "no." The policy of the Department of Education 
has been to modify the traming of the teachers to meet the needs 
and exigencies of ever-varying conditions. There have been no 
revolutionary tendencies, but evolution has been apparent at all 
tunes. There has been no attempt to adopt the system of any 
other country m its entirety, but the educational authorities have 
had an open mind, ready to assimilate whatever would seem to 
be of practical vailue in making the teachers of the day more capable 
of meeting the demands of society. But men are naturally con- 
servative and educators are no exception to the rule. Hence 
while almosi every conceivable human activity, such as farmine 
manufacturing transportation, etc., has undergone a revolution 
during the last generation, the method of rural education, devised 
by Ur. Kyerson some sixty years ago, has continued, with modi- 
fications, until the present decade. To comprehend the whole 
problem of rural education, some understanding of changing 
social, economic, and industrial conditions is necessary. 

The disproportionate growth of urban and rural communities 
has disturbed Ontario in recent years. The tendency, common in 
all civilized countries except Denmark, to have a movement of 
population froni rural to urban localities, has prevailed in Ontario, 
in 1891 rural Ontario had a population of 1,295.525. By 1901 
this number had dropped to 1,246,969, and by 1911 to 1 194 785 
a decrease m twenty years of 100,358 or 7.7 per cent. Sonic of 
»n ♦h"''TJ' "'"'*''?" counties showed an increase, but practically 
iLta "i '1""^'"' ^^T^ " 'P"''^'^ decrease. During the same 
period the school population in these older counties showed a 
decrease of twenty-three per cent. From 1901 to 1911 the rural 
population of the whole of Canada increased twenty per cent while 
during the same period the population of towns and cities increased 

tion of 935,908 in 1901, but by 1911 it had reached 1,328 489 
which means an increase of 392,511 or forty-two per cent. Many 
reason> have been advanced by economists for these condition 

&IJC1I &s . — 


1. The use of improved machinery. 

2. Farmers desire better educational advantages for their 


3. Money circulates more freely in cities than in country 


4. Young people are attracted by the amusements and excite- 

ments of city life. 

We are not concerned here with examining the validity of these 
reasons but two facts seem perfectly clear, (1) during recent years 
there has been a remarkable exodus from the older parts of Ontario 
to the newer, undeveloped sections and to the great provinces of 
the Canadian Northwest and (2) many young people have been 
attracted from the land to the cities by greater opportunities for 
social and financial advancement in connection with the commercial 
and industrial expansion of the country. Strange to say, while the 
total rural population of the Province has thus been seriously de- 
pleted, the number of farms and farmers ha.s remained almost un- 
changed. Thus in 1901, there were 224,127 farmers and in 1911 
, there were 223,260, a decrease of only 867 (O.A.C. Review, Vol. 26, 
July 1914). 

The decrease then can be accounted for by the loss of farmers' 
sons and daughters, hired helpers, rural mechanics, and a gradual 
decline in the size of rural families. The report of the Minister of 
Education for 1915 shows that the rural school population in 1903* 
was 57.8 per cent of the total school population, in 1912 it was 48.7 
per cent of the total, and in 1914 only 46.2 per cent. This corres- 
ponding decrease is also to be explained by the decreasing size of 
tamiliesj by removal of artisan families, and bv the fact that many 
farmers' sons and daughters are bringing up their families in urban 

The great problem regarding rural Ontario is to make country 
life so attractive and wholesome, that the majority of the people 
will be satisfied to live there rather than in town or city. Much 
has been accomplished through the influence of the railway, the 
telephone, electric lights, and rural mail delivery to bring the best 
of the city to the farmer without the corresponding disadvantages 
of urban existence. The possession of material things, the oppor- 
tunity for social enjoyment, and the pleasure that comes from work 
Itself, are tending to make the rural population contented and 
happy. Mere prosperity will not solve the problem. Education 
must be suited to the needs of all; the children especially must be 
interested in home life and community activities to such an extent 
that they will not be ashamed of their birthright. Something is 



the Ontario Agricultural Colleg^at oSh a2''r''TV,''*n" '^^^ 

with the right outloorori r and tnat hi'l^'h '"'f ^"""l"" 
through education, directly re.ateTt'o renltZ nt'^f t'o?^ 

to ^::i:sz^'7^x^'^ t "^^i^t^ 

culture became obligatory Tnthe^ubL'^i",,™*''" """^ '°?" "S''" 
, .t is taught to-day, ha. developed tL old rt-bAone"Jh"r' '^ 


Schools where teachers are trained. At the Normal Schools also, 
teachers receive instruction in elementary agriculture and school 
gardening". (12:4). 

Thus the rural school of Ontario is beginning to find a new 
field of service. Through school gardens and experimental plots, 
the school is introducing and testing new varieties of vegetables 
and field crops. In some communities a new love of rural environ- 
ment is being taught through the interest that young people have 
m well-kept lawns, shrubbery, and flowers. The school plant itself, 
re-vitalized under the leadership of a teacher of vision and power 
IS becoming a social centre where a new wholo-hearted contentment 
IS being taught. That this work is spreading is shown bv the fact 
that in 1903, four schools in the Province were doing work in prac- 
tical agriculture, while in 1914 there were 278 schools engage<l in 
this work. The grants paid by the Ix'gislature have increased in 
proportion. In 1903, four hundred dollars were paid to trustees 
while in 1914 nearly three thousand dollars were paid. The first 
grants to teachers were made in 1908 amounting to one hundred 
and twenty dollars; in 1914 teachers' grants amounted to more than 
three thousand dollars. However, when one remembers that in 
1914 there were 8276 teachers of rural schools in the Province and 
that fewer than 300 participated in these .special grants, the be- 
ginnings seem small indeed. 

But there is a beginning and the agricultural leaven is working. 
The present measure of success of clementarv agriculture in 
rural schools may be accounted for by, (1) teachers peeuliiirlv pre- 
pared for their work, (2) satisfactory division of the schoofvear, 
(3) government grants to schools, (4) good system of organiza'tion. 
lhe_ work in elementary agriculture S' ' horticulture mav be carried 
on by teachers specially qualified foi the work or by teachers of 
proved ability, who arc not speciallv certificated. "Any regular 
tcatner may obtain a crrtificate by, (1) a spring course of ten weeks 
at the Ontario College f Agriculture or, (2) two summer sessions 
at the same institution and a directed course (,.' reading during one 
winter or, (3) a course in agriculture at a High School,' followc<l by 
a regular course at a Normal School and one summer session at 
Uuidph. Only competent teachers are entitled to receive the sp<'eial 

The usual causes of failure in school gardening an<l agricul- 
ture are attributed to long summer vacations and the frequent 
changes of teachers. To obviate the difficulties of the school vaca- 
tion, the Department of Education requires that foi purposes of 
the school garden the year shall be the calendar year and not the 
usual school year from September to June. Ample provision must 
be made for the care of the garden during the months of July and 


N iii! ! 


The trustees are requS to share t^ 'v. T k"'*"' i" *'"' '"hoo'- 
bilitv nnrl a ";" '^Vj"'/.'"' ™ share in the labour and the resDonsi- 

tember*A™ih?se derails are n' '" ^"'"^Tu' '^^ ™"dition in §e^ 
are based rtrsep^ticuTarrS' "^ ')" """*" *" t*"^ ''^""^ 

prevent the frp!,L„fkr , "^ residences would surely, (1) 

reatl'v"^-l?tat7i?";^ '"'^*'""'*"^ '" rural crmunS wou dt 
work Tl e „h! f t'^'^re were some measure of differentiation of 
SreH X^L *w^""*'r "'■^'''^ "8'^'"^* t'''^ «'«"ld be that if the rura 
differed from th. urban course, pupils from city and country schools 


would not be on an equal footing in the High Schools and Collegiate 
Institutes. To obviate this difficulty certain standard subjects 
could be common to both courses of study ami the Entrance Kxam- 
ination to High Schools could still be uniform throughout the 
Province as it is to-day. Pupils could be required to pass additional 
examinations in the newer subjects prepared by each local Entrance 
Board. As a guide to the teachers in preparing their pupils for 
these examinations, each inspector would he required, uiider the 
supervision of the Department, to draw up a syllabus of studi<-8 
best suited to his inspectorate in the various subjects such as art, 
nature study, school gardening, horticulture, agriculture, etc. Such 
a specimen outline in nature study was recently prepared by the 
junior inspector and adopted by the Ottawa Public School Board. 

The differentiation of rural and urban school courses of study 
brmgs up the question of making a difference betwwn the training 
of teachers for the -two classes of schools. Teachers who have 
always lived in towns or cities are at a great disadvantage when they 
find themselves face to face with rural problems. Frequently such 
a teacher's position is most embarrassing and his prestige suffers 
seriously because the pupils discover the ignorance of the teacher 
concermng the most simple rural activities. Should there not be 
one or more of the Normal Schools set apart for the special training 
of rural teachers? It has been shown that in all the Ontario Normal 
Schools the course is uniform and hence no attempt is made to 
give special training for the preparation of teachers for graded or 
ungraded, urban or rural schools. It may be fairly contended that 
the Normal Schools as constituted at present tend to prepare teach- 
ers more for town or city schools than for rural schools, since most 
of the observation and practice teaching is done in graded schools. 
It IS very. questionable if ..<ome Normal Schools should train city 
teachers and others country teachers. The great principles of ed- 
ucation are the same for both urban and rural schools and if the 
present plan of carrying on some observation work and practice 
teaching in affiliated rural schools s.icceeds, there should be no 
need of specialized Normal Schools. Then at the beginning of their 
traimng course it is practically impossible for students to make 
a choice as to which type of school they should prepare to teach. 
For these and other reasons it may be assumed that even if there 
were a differentiated course of study for rural and urban schools, 
teachers could still receive their professional training in the Normal 
Schools as now constituted. It would be possible to arrange that 
teachers who expected to teach in rural si-hools could take part of 
their course at a separate Normal School established in connection 
with the Ontario Agricultural College. Another plan would be 
for ail students to complete their regular Normal School course as 

i i! 






mo?e'^umZr JeZns af thl' T''^«','"'l"''on>ents to attend ore 

™"1"'°""'"P"n his laving ,oZ|"w\7,» '™<lni»>te *o..M | 
rum! or urban tpsrhefn, '""P'^t"' « BUniniw courae for eith, 

Ont,',Si:V,iii.SL,r,V"nSlr' '"",'-•" '"'I' >» -1.0. ho- 


roady means by whicTk^rotTf K """ ''"'l"'*^'' '""nd in te^hiL I 
fessionally There is „^ dJreTn «n u' '■?"'"'<''■ *•>">■ work pro^ 

rural sehools of Ontario Th^^.^''^^' re-organi^^tion of the 
-P"'-on. .0 new -thod^f-^ttrea^Ttr; *tX' 

rural communities; it must rather be pvolvod by them perhaps 

tTve Zsta'^crT'j """^"''"■' »•"• 8<'V-nme„[givi„"'..„'!:.per 
tive afsistantc In al proRressive countries, attompts are being 
made to adjust education to m.-et the needs of the children of he 
country districts, to inter.. ,t thcr in home life in the country and 
^qualify them to follow that i.fe with pl.-asure and profit. To 
r.h ^•'; 'T.Pr°vement in the rural school, the 6rst ,ion"ial is a 

expected to contmue in the service of one school for a number of 
years. To accomplish this there is but one feasible mmie of pr^ 
cedure, and that is to n^organiise the whole system of rural du<'^ 
tion to make it possib c for a competent, ambitious teache t feel 

orobaWli^r f "''''' "' '''''°" ^'"'^^y °f '"''' '"■«' '^"'^^ «^th ome 
probability of permanence. 

Several leading educators of the Province have advocated con- 
solidation as the only solution of the difficulty. It ma ™e < . cctcd 
that consolidation has been tried and failedf on the contran^', con- 

izefl i\ rir nh " " *7"' ""** **"; ^o'''' ('™««'li'l»ted School organ- 
should S.f^» " ''""Ttration of what the new kind of school 
?M, nllfoi f ■? ™™"\'""ty. has not been entirely successful. But 
this partial fa lure is due to such evident mistakes in organization 
that they could easily be avoi<led in the future. There are diffi- 
1,™ wV" "^7 f consolidation to be sure, but what great prob- 
lem was ever solved, or what great enterprizo ever undertaken with- 
hateTTT '^'*™'*''"' *° '"■ overcome? One plan woSid be to 
have instea<l of our prt^sent trustee system, a county boarc^ made 
up of three members, two appointed by the County Council and 
one by the Minister of Education. This County B^rd of which 
the inspector or inspectors would be ex-oflScio mc^, would ccn- 
b ?i d?nL rh "'^""^ -' '^" "'""ty- They would p ovide s tes 
rate ^fn "■'',''"'' ''rjP'"™*' ™P'"-V t™''''"". fix the schoo 
rate for the county, and frame rules for the management of the 
schools sul^jcct to the. regulations of the Department of E lucatim 
l^l^Z '^,"i™'«f "f.this Board would be men an women 
deeply interested in education and with considerable knowledge of 

n aluntTas at"n ^r nf ^i'"" '"TiV"" °^ '''"'^ hundred sZds 
■n a count} as at present, there would be ten, twenty, or thirty and 

mTsT 1 "■ Tr'"'.'""^ """^^ '"°''^^" '» '^"y r spec Each 
such school would have from one hundred to three hundred pupils 
and there IS no reason why there should not be a teacher's r, siden e 
a co°Xt,' 1 I """^-T^ ''''""i'- ^'**' " graded school, w^ "quipped 
ohtZ Th •'"^''T''"","8°'"' *"'''"'-V' it "■""'f' be easy to 

and with i^n""'^ "' a well-educated male teacher for prindpal! 
and with improved conditions, social and otherwise, it should be 


under the .lireotion „ 7prinri jthoT»r*'r',''"l'*™''' ""^ 
experience. The principafoSon ... »? "'•'■'la'-Hhip an.l wi,l 
«e,.m to be.the removal of the L^hool ar herT"*^.,"' ? ""'' """' 
w at present, not merely in Xtan, . 1,^^ '-T "','" '"'""' than i 
The intimate personal eontaJt of t .» h " '1'"* »•'!'' '"""""dinp 
ola«».«, their close aaso,. ation on 1(^0^ ""'' "i'^""/" »*"'''• ""•'^ 
and the teacher's acnrintanc,. wi if •^"*''''l'"'^ ""'' ""' °' «'-^<>"i 
for the more formal rZZhin I , """T, """''' *»■ <-«'l'ang.., 
teristic of urban schools TJn *.''",•'''''' ''"'"' 'fa-'hing charac- 

ter school buil^n^rS'endpmerm ""*/k *'"' ''L'r'""'*^' of M- 
ers, presenting wSk mo^^XJit'ers^ ,7?"'''''-^ *"'""'' '-'«••'• 
would more than compensate fnrl^)-.'' '" immunity needf 
involved through coZ>UdAti„n T 'l^^^'lvantages that might b 
the township a! the^ of'""„, ^1" ^'"• P'«n. would be to have 

consolidated school nZr to aT^f'ri \^'' ''•""''^ *>""« the 
and m consequence it could hp^Lnk'^T'^ **""" '* """W serve 
social life. Instead- nf tl * ^ ^^ "" '*' P**™"' as a centre of 
Township Boir"d'eTect^ Xl^ Z ? c^Ja^!"* there would b^i 
or inspectors of the eountv S ^^'^e ratepayers, the inspector 
of education. This dIm cnnM * .f""''''"'" members of all Boards 
er schools might be refined Ir.'r ^' Tf^"^ '" 'hat one-teacS 
grade,,-.«.totheendofSenrorThirJ "Z"'' *"■,*''/ ™^ «' 'he sixth 
up would attend the 'SwS^H 1' h ' ^V'^'u f™" "'''"'<''■ Fourth 

secondary education adapted t„^l?°°LT''"'' '^'"''<' «'^» f"™ish 
virtually the adopt." H the stcAri!/?'''*'^^- T^^ """^'^ ""an 
munities. In addition V.. *^ so-called six-and-six plan in rural com. 
apiculture, manuaUraWng* Z h" ''^'?'^' ^^W™*', nature study, 
vided and the cont nuUvSVe 1,2 '''' m''.'"S°''"' """'d ^e pr^ 
advanced worW «ft„> *u ■ '"* ^°'^'^ v/ould tend to hold nunila fnr 

If th^towX un^t'we;e''r:H'-"'™".'''t,^™'-^^^^ 

could easily be organlrrl^L '"npfaeticable, each inspectorate 

its own Board o?Trusteif "tL'Zn 't**' k'^'^^^'u'"^*"^* '''''"t^^^^^^ 
Board. irusiees, the inspector being chairman of each 

schools ^'e necess'^aT tlet^f T"'',""',^' •'^"''ation, three types of 
and the elemS?'schooT oit-f "f"^"' ^^' 'r"''"^ ^^^ool 
Agriculture to which frMupntrlf has an excellent College of 
pages. The Departmen?of PH,!™,-"™.'''^^'*" ""'''' '" these 
encouraging education for cou^trv ti^p" tl kT ""''}■ "^tive in 


..ven for the imp.oveEf XC^r." V^hT^^ ,tn forX" 


Many young 
licved of the I 
t would work 
lip an<l wide 
a unit would 
iome than it 
1 their small 
ut of school, 
p exchangwl 
ling charac- 
ages of bct- 
aincd teaoh- 
unity needs 
«t might be 
be to have 
(i bring the 
ould serve, 
a centre of 
TOuld be a 
e inspector 
all Boards 
f the sixth 
lior Fourth 
Iso furnish 
ould mean 
rural com- 
ure study, 
Id be pro- 
pupils for 
rth grade, 
t, electing 
n of each 

training of those in rural communities, the clementarv- whool must 
teach the elements of agriculture and to make this possible, teachers 
must !«■ properly trained in country life subjiits. Thi' College of 
Agriculture is the apex of this educational pyramid and must teach 
the prmciples of scientific and practical agriculture to adults 
There is need, however, of a High School lr)cHted in the country. 
Not a secondary school of agriculture, though agriculture and kin- 
dred subjects would be taught; not an urban High Schiml removed 
to the country, though many of the cultural subjects now taught in 
such mstitutions would be taught; but a genuine rural High School 
that would train for social and intelle<tual efficiency in that same 
environment. Too often in the past, if a boy has done well in the 
ordinary rural school he is sent off at about "fourteen years of age, 
to an academic High School in the city. This is a very serious 
mistake, for during these formative, adolescent years he should lie 
investigating problems relating to the farm. Instead he is following 
work in the urban High School that has no direct bearing whatever 
on the activities of rural life, even the science is formal and fails to 
give him any comprehension of the wonderful possibilities of its 
applications to farm life. This youth, who goes from the country 
to the city High School, associates with the young people of the 
city, partakes of the social life of the city, hears nothing in favour of 
country life, and at the end of four years the country offers no at- 
tractions to him as a permanent home. Eventually through sheer 
force of character, gained during earlier years on the farm, he suc- 
ceeds in some business or profession for which he was more fitted by 
experience than by nature. Many rural parents hesitate to send 
their children, during these critical years.of adolescence, away from 
the protection of home into an environment totally different from 
that of the country. Consequently though high school education 
IS desired by such parents for their children, Ihcv are deprived of 
it because the parents are unwilling to take the risks involved. If 
the child cannot be sent to the school, then the school should be 
brought to the child and this could be accomplished by establishing 
in each township of the older counties of Ontario a consolidated 
High School. In this way a high school education would be pos- 
sible for every country child, who is entitled to educational advant- 
ages equal to those provided for the most favoured urban child. 

There has been some prophecy of such schools in Ontario but in all 
probability it will be some time before the rural public can be suf- 
ficiently educated to realize the fulfillment of the prophecy. How- 
ever, in 1907 encouragement was given to the establishment of 
agricultural departments in one of the secondary schools in each 
county. Graduates of the Agricultural College were .ippninted as 
agricultural representatives, and it was proposed that tliey should 

i^'i ! 



High Si-hool «<l in tho town* wTuTe thrir ..ffil.,.H wit,, locate! 
hZ ^'T*^ "'f r<K.uir,Hl to vot,. «.500 nnnuullv towards the mjp- 

viH on of the remainder of the fund- r«iuired. The eonnty Zt 
rulturul representative lieiiw fully employed in field work the Xn 
ha» not «rorke.l out -atWa.torily, henee other meann wil lavel" 
iH- devised or eneoiiraging this work. The pre»,.nt Continuation 
Sehools eouk be mmlified so that they woul.l serve the rural 
communities better than at nresent. They eould be establi,he<"rn 
the open epuntry ms ead o{ in urban eentres as they usually arc 
now. Their course of study could 1^. so ehang«l that they would 
V rtual ly become consolidated rural schools. A regular pr™m 
of studies should be prepared for those rural High SehooulnTh^h 
L"/.""'":. "■•"""? *V"1'1 '•" given to the teaching oH. 'nee ub- 
J«;ts in their application to rural work, rural proh-ems, and tfie 
rZ^l'l "'"'f y'-^.the »y»tem»,, an<l iperationi of r,,rm- 

would be developed by special attention to languages, literature 
mnn^t"^' Tm'^"""- ,"?'' T^ experiences as make^or the eSl 
ment and efficiency of mtellectuafand social life in rural districts 
Young p.^ple so educated should become contented, prosperous 
and happy citizens. Naturally some graduates would find thei 
,w^n .?"'''™"'"" ??'' '"'° ^""'"'^ life; many would become 
ntelligent farmers and farmers' wives. Others would look forwTd 
to entering agricultural household science, or art colleges with a 
view to l>ecoming teachers in rural communities so thit year bv 

SJ ^^™T'"'"*^'' ''•"™' •'"''"" «"'• "«'' Schools would be 
staffed by teachers whose" natural instincts and traiuing have l>t,en 
largely rural and not urban. There is no reason why studeiTte 
trained in such rural schools should not receive theiT profe^ionaJ 
training in the Normal Schools and Faculties of Educatfon itC^e 

.„ l?^*^ ^^"■o P*1 °f *^*'''" ''"°'"8 ^O""" eould be takenTt a 
tSral cX" '^"'b'^hed i" connection with the Agricu ' 

Doubtless, some time in the future, complete provision for the 
education of he youth of rural communitie^ will prevaT Such 
conditions will not come by revolution but by the slow p occl of 
r2r",^'r- i" **•? ?"''"*'"? "«'"™' eonservatism prevent^ rapM 
reforms, and prejudice against anything new must be gradual v 
overcome. Penurious local authorities will continue to rale the 
rer?Ii^?"^ t?^"""' "'"'T'^ ™'*' '" «P't« °f -evident advantages 
2h^^^i ™''' ' ■• 1 Ti "f •'■"™' ''dueation would cost moreXn 

SL' tVaulhl'^x'-'oart: " ""*' """ **""• ""' "'""«' " ^^^ -*- 





Thb Unitkd Statks AND Ontario. 

In both thp Uniti'd Statex iinil Cii-mda dcmocrtttir principlpH 

of government prevnil. ami the jieople lire governe<l in ni rdiinee 

with their own wishes. In the (tnited Wtfttes the Ke<ieral Ciovern- 
ment ponHeHHen only 9U<>h powers are were expressly and voluntarily 
rviiiRned to it hv the several Stat<>s. In t:nnttdft, on the other hand, 
the central (jovernment possesses all the powers not assigned to the 
several provinciw. While the people of the Uniteil States are loath 
to take away local authority, still they are willing to give their 
rulers more exteiiF-ve powers than would l>e thought of under the 
system of government in Canada. This statement is true of the 
powers given to the President of the United States, to the Governor 
of nearly every State, to the State Supt'rintendents or Commissioners 
of Education, and to local superintendents or inspectors in various 
parts of the country. 

The Federal Government of the United States, like the Fe<leral 
Government of Canada, has little supervision and control of matters 
of education. In each State added to the Union since 178.'), one 
sixteenth of the public land must be reservetl for providing a school 
fund. At various times the government has ma(U' appropriations 
in money and land to the several states for educational purpose. 
Institutions like the Smithsonian Institute, the National Museum, 
and the Library of Congress, furnish magnificent opportunities for 
students of higher education who desire to carry on original and 
scientific research work. The Bureau of Education at Washington, 
founded in 1867 for the purpose of collecting information ami gath- 
ering statistics regarding education, has proven to be a most value- 
able institution in the interests of education. This Bureau pub- 
lishes frequent reports and monographs dealing with special de- 
partments of educational work and these are distributed to the pub- 
lic institutions of several countries, and to private individuals who 
satisfy the Commissioner of Education at Washington that they 
are interested in educational questions. The Dominion of Canada 
has nothing corresponding to this Bureau, but in 1910 a Royal Com- 
mission was appointed by the Dominion Government to investigate 
the whole problem of industrial training and technical education. 
This Commission visited the foremost countries of the world and 
published a report making certain valuable recommendations re- 



vin,.„,l ,..,„„,r„, „|,,„ i„ „;'"•„ .,"s ,,7'"'" '« ••"-.■nt mlly a pro- 

Through th.. lihlrHlity^f th. F,., rT'' "''^""t-""'- -ff™t, 
hMy.on«hlHt,.w„rkmHitH„wn . ,™t>n„ r™"?";"* "?•■'' "»«*" »>« 
with thP Keniu- of iu inlmh LtH|,.nr f"'''*''^? '/'''"•'''-'»''''<• 
terixtirH arc apparent. """""*"■ '"'"'" '•■'•tam inclividuHl charac- 

tion litll;;' ;h;'CL"<Ir:ir'"'"'^"'y "* '^'■" ■« -'•""-'•f'y educ 

in«tifutiI!;V«Lt".™?a"ril';!!;.X^7'''^ "">" of •t.te.upportH 
colleg'e,^a!:'-p!^.&J%ti;;,:"- ?fri"4 •'-- "^ «" -».ooh, and 

to accomplUh this the tendon! fn e^ «f „♦ *•"'."'"« "' '*""•'"'" «"'' 
tcm of examination and eert fieation of te«eh'" *" T.'"''"" ""• "y*- 
traming of teaehers in the United s7»L '"'"•. ■?'" P™f™«ional 
the Prussian system and h™«n with fh "* »°d<.lled closely after 
teachers. During the"" dueat^n^ii, *'•'' P'fP"»tion of elementary 
different states o^anLecVZw yTx'^^ '^^ ''^ V^^- '^' 
one result being that elementary ""'■•'" '""'' "J'tems, 

very defective and inelfii^ni C.ZlZ ?' xr*" '''«'«v«red to be 
created with the expreS obiect 7n?^^ ^""""^ ^'^"^^^ *"'- 
Common fn 1839 M^JhJ »'''^""' *,™'''"'" '"' «>"" 
Schools, all of which are still in^^rT T"^ *''"■« formal 
opening of one of th^e! GovernorTv r?t't 'f" 5," '"'''r"« "' ^^e 
dicated the purpose of sich Sntil? of Massachusetts in- 
a careful review of the branches thr * ""u?''"^ ■" '"""*»■ W 
should b«. thoroughly V. rs,Hl in what he J""?? *.~*t" f"*""" ^''aeher 
part of instruction (n a NormarSch™ T« ^i*' *T''; <2) the second 
must know the matter to 1™, ugh I nt It "■ °' '^"'^hing-^ne 
teaching; (3) the third func ion K' ..liJ''^''^ " " P^'<'"»" a'* of 
m the .liffioult art of gover, i?,g i s hnnl 1^ '^ *°" d-be teacher 



thr Common Srhool« pxpnmli'il into thi'Kintli'rKnrti'nlM'liiWRi'din'ii 
the High SoIhk)! n\>ove, and the Nornml Hchooln, whirli IihiI nnaiiliK il 
till' rcuponsihility iif truininii icncliiTH f(jr tin' mmmnn Hrhiii:l». ix- 
ti nili'd tlii'ir lurriiulH to mnt tin ikh-iIh iif ti acliiTH iif KilnlrrRiirtcnH 
1111(1 High HcIhmiIh rh wi-II iia of (Common Hi'IiimiIh. The Noriiinl 
Hrlioold sucriTilvil very well In pri'imring tfiiilitrn even for High 
Srhuol* no long hh i-iluriition rcmnlni'd n ninttcr iif inxtrui tiim. Iiut 
when invi'Htigution und nwBrch liccanii' important fiiit<iri«, tlii' 
Xorinal SiIkioIb wcrr unalili' to prcpnrt' the HpccialihtH tliat wvtv 
rcquiri'd in the High Srhoolii. In Homp cnBrB, however, Normiil 
.>*<'huol8 with limited rcBoureea attempted to prepare tinehi th for all 
gradcH of work and in ho doing liriiiight ilemrved criticivni upon 
themwlvfu. Speaking generally, the Normal SehooU of the I'nited 
States have been most »ueee«8lul in the preparation of teaehem. 

It appcarn then that at first no very nharp ilifTerentiation exi»teil 
between tin- profesHional training of elemmtary and of weeondary 
teaehfra. About the time that Normal SehooU were expanding 
their curricula to inelu<le the training of high M'hool teaelii'rii, the 
rollegea began to extend their eourses to include the preparation of 
teachers of elementary schools. This was especially true of colleges 
of the West in which Normal Departments developed, to l)ecome 
later chairs of pedagogy when the colleges b«>came universities. 
The first of such chairs were ettablished in Brown Universitv and in 
the Universities of Iowa and Missouri. At the present time the 
University of Missouri maintains a department of pedagog.v which 
is a professional school of I'ducation co-ordinate with the profes- 
sional schools of law and m. dicine. In the East, academies and 
high schools prepared students for collcg.i and university work. 
In the West, there were no academici and few high schools, hence 
the universities were forced to establish preparatory departments. 
In the East, the Normal Schools trained l>oth elementary and secon- 
dary teachers; but as there were no Normal Schools in the West, the 
universities establiiihed Normal Departments for the training of 
elementary teachers. Latter, when State Normal Schools were es- 
tablished, the Normal Departments were either discontinued or else 
«ere modified to meet the demand for the professional training of 
secondary teachers. This university movement started without 
any very definite purpose except to prepare teachers for all grades 
of public school work, both elementary and secondary, though at 
first the stress was placed upon the preparation of elementary 
teachers, Both the Normal School movement and the movement 
to have teachers trained by means of Normal Departments in uni- 
A eraities originated among the people, through their desire for better 
schools. (20: 63.) 


pr<>f..s»io„„| Ln ;i7,rw' rSn to'Cf 'l".'?""'' ^'•'•"lar° and 
tearlunR without a,l.<,uat.proZ^^^^^^^^^ '^teringupon the work of 

pr»fi'».sio.i. B..for,. tlu. Snn^^ni ,7t • ''^ ''™«-fit.<l the tcaJhing 
normal .school Kra.luat'.s wn '^ u- ' '.»»v<'m.-nt, ,.„l!..g,. and 
but both wor,. U!Xl pr .parS"fh'"f """"'">*''"'* '''«'' ^"ho"'' 
profession,., k„„„.|,.,,„,. and f?"h?f ! "l" l'"™'? ''«•""«• of lack of 

vcrsity in i)roviding instruction in ti "'"'-■ ''''"' "''"'' "' the Uni- 
aro summarised a/follow»:- ''"'■n« and urt.of teaching 

puWic .^'hool's';"!,-:;::"^ '*"''^'"*'' ^"^ *»•« higher posltiona in the 

2. To promote the study of educational science. 
an<l docWn'™.''"' "'' '''''"'^' "^ «''"^«""» »'«' of e<lucationai systems 
age.s of IVXdon. """'^'"'^ "'^' "^l''^' P^^^ogative.,, and advant- 

by, brin^^g^'lL" ^onKy tcho"d^ il*"" f"*^ ""r"?*'™'" ^^^t™ 
university. (Univ. CValenL S-l^, ^Tler " "*' *'"' 

sity wt^l^*'?o'^'trli"n^tn^nrrv^^^^^^ 

teach,.rs for high school Son? for *?''•"', ™'^'>J ''"' *" t™'" 
and for „„„,..:.. ^ , ."' positions, tor prmcipals and headmasters 

iversities Mri«».«,i ..;^;i__ ■ ' 

nl^'nt^^f'KaS';:^; aiT^ZHS^nr T""^' ^ "^"^P-'" 
gan and with courses of st X . ifi? ' '™*"^al with those of Michi- 
Some of these 'Uv^ttZV'XJl'T.: "^''^^'^y'-oml 
over the continent and a few such '" th« k*^™,™^, '*""«'" «" 
University of Chicago, ami VT^crrs' Pnl ^^^,"' f Education 
sity, hav,. become W'ordTmJrTh ■ '^Z' < olumbia Univer- 
tlms s..t forth in u eurrent calendar of'the"},H «M<'h '"epartments ia 
purpose of Teachers' Ciolego ^ o nff, r!t "'J "!«t't"tion. "The 
leal and practical, for the rafn in^ of tn^ f opportunity, both theoret- 

branches of s!^.ool ^^0:1:^^^^,'^.^^^ ^^^ 


To sum up then, therp are threo distinct types of training 
schools. First, the Normal Schools which wore establisiied for the 
preparation of elementary school teachers. Their object and status 
liave been modified from time to time, though for the most part 
they aim to train .'•':, u-otury school teachers in botli private and 
State institutions I'he h* coiiil type is the Normal Departments in 
colleges and univ Tsities. Tlie/r jbject has i)een much less definite, 
as they have sot iliiMcs trainr i elementary teachers and at other 
times both eieme". ■ f ;ii.'{ hi'.,h school teachers. They have fre- 
quently l)e<n brouglit mtu ;■. .nfiict with the Normal Schools be- 
cause of their lack of definite purpose. Tiiese have developed into 
State Normal Schools affiliated witli the State Universities as in 
Nevada and Utah, or th(^y have grown into regular University De- 
partments of education for the special preparation of secondary 
teachers as in Iowa, Missouri, and other States. The thirti type is the 
establishment of a University Department of Education or faculty, 
co-brdinate with other collegiate departments or faculties in the 
same universities: (examples have already been given). Their aims 
were, and have continued to be, clear-cut and definite, (1) the profes- 
sional preparation of seconla/v teachers, city superintendents, 
elementary and high school principals, normal school and college 
professors, (2) the scientific investigation of educational problems. 
It should bo noted that this last type has been subjected to severe 
criticism from other collegiate department.s whose professors 
have been disposed to look with some contempt upon a faculty of 
education and from some Normal Schools that have come to 
regard the training of high school teachers as their legitimate field. 
However, these departments have continued to grow in favour and 
have become important and permanent phases of the educational 
system of the United States. (20: 151). 

The foregoing paragraphs give some brief account of the out- 
standing methods of preparing teachers in the United States. It 
will be observed that the Normal Schools resemble the Normal 
Schools of Ontario in many respects, though there art no private 
Normal Schools in Ontario. Usually the course of study covers two 
years in the Normal Schools of the United States and more attention 
is given to academic work than in Ontario. In Ontario these schools 
show a marked uniformity in administration, organization, courses 
of study, and in examination and certification of teachers. In the 
United States they diflfer from one another very widely in organ- 
ization, admission requirements, in courses of study and in modes of 
instruction. This may be accounted for from the fact that many of 
tiicir Normal Schools have grown up in isolation from one another 
and from other educational institutions. Then again, the demand 
for teachers has been so urgent that standards of training have not 


of 8!),537 students an<Un ann?mT^v„ >?♦ ' "'f " t"*"' attendance 
dollars. These figur"' do not Tnc ude m "•'•°^ ,"""'> "'"" '"""o" 
mal Schools which number fo?v si a^Hr""' '""^ P"'-'"*'' Nor- 
5,749 students. The oolleeerRnd . ni ■i•""'^''" attendance of 

Normal Departmen?rtruXr. ?s no tvne^f'tr °''^""'™ '"'^'' "^ 
to the second eeneral meth^H ,, • V P' °' '"""ng correspondinir 
of the United'K"^t pSrff kT"'T'' «' ^'"'™St"? 
xity of Toronto and at Queers Unversi**'u" "*•**"' Univer- 
pond to the Departments o^Edw^tion^eU^n-K" ■*'?''' *" ™"<'«- 
wi^hmanyoftheiniversitieso tLSeTstSef th'' 'V""'!™*'''" 
- Edueat.onmOntario,,re.somewhatlimiteHir,tV • ''''' faculties of 
purpose is the preparatiorof fi^t e^.s 1 n'''''''l™I!''''''*heirmain 
high school assistants. The course. In n"^''" "''"S' *"«'''"'" a-d 
for teachers looking forward to admin^s^*^"^' °'^? P'^'Paration 
positions. Though facilities have ^.^"''"^t'-ative and supervisory 
research work, yrt the character of wLt**" P™"'''"' '"' «"»««« 
of degrees in pedago^v wi^? !lL ne<-ess8ry to the securing 

loading to the &?f Do tor ofThi.7r^.^''>'°"?'''y ^''^ ^<^k 
of the universitief of the United States "^ '° "'"^''«°" i" most 


Schools and entrlnce ■ „ ffultL of tl? r°'''u"*':''"™ *" formal 
no professional trainn.g whatever^ ^v™ 'T' \f V^'"" """^^'^^ 
teacher training is carried on ;„ * ^Y "j.J" *'"' United States 
1,051 public High Schools provide,, h°'^ ^"^f"* ^^^t^^' 1° a'l < 
ers and 21,076 sludentsZe'^^p^^rLd 3^ r?"^^^^^ 
ever there are 288 private schools f „H ^ ? attendance. More- 
students. In all such iMtftuti^n, fe!^ academies training 6,084 
regular high school courses Fear hrw„*™'""'« ''." P"t of'the 
training courses in High Schools milrht^^^ expressed that teacher 
courses, hence there is rgenera"tendenev f ?' I^!"'" ''^''demic 
and grant no certificate unMUour vearsyr™ "'^^t" *''« '^""■'^^ 
have been completed. In some sta?! tK *"'" ^'«^ "'''"'o' «'ork 
High Schools cannot be entered bv a„v„„ l""""' ^'"" ^"^'^"^'^ '" 
a regular four-year academTc High School' " " ""^ « K'-'duate of 

of A™biro7i:c°£:!.!Lss°n'''%*%"t'''" -^ ^'^t^''^^ ^t^iy 

of the United States. ConsZeftv fn'th"^/!' f9rty-eight states 
tempt will be made to compare somrw^^^^^^ blowing pages an at- 
tem o preparing teachersln oSariM^h 7^'"''"'"^"'^ t^e sys- 
typical states, New York, MissouriTnH r r/'"'-'-^'*''"' '" three 
will be made under the ^ ifw ng heaS^gs ""'"■ f^«-"Pa"3ons 


Classes of Training Schools and their administration. 

Admission requirements. 

Internal organization. 

Courses of study. 

Observation and practice teaching. 

Final examinations and certification. 


New Yohk and Ontario. 

Classes of Training Schools and their Administration. 

The State of New York like the Province of Ontario has a 
highly centralized system of education, and elaborate provision for 
the training of teachers is made by the State Department of Edu- 
cation. Perhaps no state in the Union offers greater facilities for 
the preparation of its teachers, nor holds out stronger inducements 
to take advantage of the opportunities afforded. The State Col- 
lege, at Albany, trains teachers for secondary schools. The courses 
offered in this i^^^'tution cover four years and are purely collegiate 
and professic 1 ' 'ading to degrees. Ten State Normal Schools 
are engaged i. ring teachers for the elementary schools. The 

general courses • ..ed in the State Normal Schools are uniform and 
cover two years, but in some of the Normal Schools special courses 
are given. The State College for teachers and the State Normal 
institutions are maintained through appropriations made each year 
by the Legislature. There are private Normal Schools in New 
York but these are not given financial assistance by the State. The 
Normal Schools are free to residents of the State but students at- 
tending the private institutions are obliged to pay tuition fees. In 
addition to the Normal Schools, city training schools, organized 
under regulations prescribed by the State Department of Education 
are maintained in twelve cities tor the preparation locally of their 
own teachers. The State Department of Education also maintains 
in 112 high schools and academies, training classes, which prepare 
teachers for the rural schools. Morcver, besides the foregoing, a 
number of the colleges and universities of the State maintain courses 
in education for the training of teachers. Though some of these 
departments of education perform most valuable functions in con- 
nection with the investigation of educational problems, they are 
not under the direct control of the Stale Department of Education 






and act.s in all matte Tnot^oXtZwr/h th*" ^^^J"/''''™' '^'t^™ 
cies for the tralniuE of tp^.-hru.. ''. • ""' "tatutes. All aeen- 

."-versity .l.Tartlnt^rf ' u^la'i^;;''* ^T''' ^™?' ^^houl/and 
issued by this Board of R™e„t8 tK i"*'" *" .'''Wlations 

trance requirements,,Tof stnl n '^«'?" ""^^ in«lu<le en- 
con<lucting of examinati m? ami tiV "PP""?*™™' of teachers, 
tion. The NormaTSZ'm u' K^^t '■7"«™t''« "' qualifica^ 
type of control since local iZrlf m /° be under a state-local 
more than thirteen members aJenbfner^ '''' 't"" three and not 
Normal .Schools. TheTocal board, .r ", ''""^ •"' ""' '<-» S'ate 
their local management is sublet Lth P^^-'y/'^/'^ory bodies and 
Commissionerof KSton who L th K- ?"'' °^ ""^^^^ »»'' tl'e 
State Board of Education '■•""' ^^«™«ve official of the 

of education bul TnlSe It 1 ,? rL"""'^'' ''>' ''"•"' '"""ds 
Department of Education renuireTthntr,'^'"-''' ^'i''?* *" '*'"■''. the 
ed until he has been aZroZbv tt n P"f'P"' '''''''' ''^aPPoiut- 

ment of Education dete?mZs the . n r^n""'"'"""'*- '"'" ^^P'^^' 
the courses of study ar7an^esth,™v„' '•'■^""•'■ments, prepares 
certificates to successUcanri It^! ^riL""^"'' ^'«* issues the 
Schools and the Norma Gehoofs V.e N„L*'l''/,''<'^'""?' ^^"M 
have no local boards as have the Norm„7« l' "^''""'^f Ontario 
The length of the session in nt- ^''™?' Schools of New York 
but in ifew York he "ousc" cover tT"* "^'"''n"'"- '"•'"'™'^' ^ '« 
of the centralization in Ontario and New'?- 0"" "J *>«- benefits 
that IS secured. All sti-ch-nts m„s? ,.n„f ."'''iu" '''<' ""iformity 
standard of admi.ssio^ "rs "",1™"^';™ '» ''"' ^r*" "''''dcmic 

pass the same examinktionrthrougho^%L°"st:t°' ''"p'*^' •""'' 
hence It may be nresiimoH tkn. """ugnoui tnc btate or Province 

and profes,si.!^irquXcltt„t foTh^^^^^^ 

courage students to bmime i -afhi k'" ^■"i'^a"'' Ontario en- 
scjcols, though studenS^a"^: c* «./[o S''''"'^ '^''■'" *?'"'"« 
Iivmg, and except in one ins'. ne. f„ Vv I "f'"' Provision for all 
Unlike some European coCtriess, eh ."°V™7""'"8 expenses, 
attempt is made to encourage studnnf K ^'^^^'"^ "■"■ J'™"'^'' "o 
It is considered better to offer r,^ V, ''^ ""f"^ "^ scholarships 
when they actualfy begin service ^^ *^'""' ^'"'"^ *° t^'-'^hers 

the ProSncrMLlTth^ora' i^TT^^J^ ^^''r«V^'' P^'^P-'"' '■> 

Faculties of Education In New York'"T'*.^''''"'^' "t in t:,e 

i^iew irork, on the contrary, rural 

teachers arc prepared by means of courses in high schools and acade- 
mies, approved by the State Department of Education. Tiiu 
courses thus provided may be undi-rtaken after three years' acach'mic 
work, though, beginning in Sept<'mber 1!)17, students will be re- 
quired to complete four years' academic work before being admitted 
to these courses. Thes** special courses for rural tench( rs cover but 
one year and certificates are issued only upon the completion of 
examinations prepared by the State Department. Ontario offers no 
courses in the high schools which lead to certificates of qualification 
as teachers, nor does Ontario make any dinVrentiution between the 
training of the teacher for the urban and the rura' school. Doubt- 
less the Ontario system could be improv<Ml by making better pro- 
vision for the training of rural teachers but it would seem to be a 
peculiar weakness of the New York system that tlu majority of 
rural teachers receive but one year's training in high schools while 
the urban teachers must have at least two years of professional 
preparation in .special institutions. Both New York and Ontario 
make provision for the training of secon<larj' teachers, the latter in 
the two Facidties of Education at Toronto and Kingston, the former 
in the Normal C-oIlege at Albany. At present this College fails to 
supply enough teachers for all the secondary schools and consequently 
n.any Normal School graduates are engaged in tcj'ching in high 
sr-hools. New York could well afford to maintain two Normal 
Colleges in order to supply properly qualifie<i teachers for its great 
system of secondary schools. In Ontario the Fiiculties of Educa- 
tion, besides training high school teachers, also prepare teachers 
for the highest grade of public school certificate. In New York the 
Normal College trains secondary teachers only. I'nlike New York, 
Ontario has no city system of training classes for the preparation of 
teachers. In New York, all teachers so trained must comply with 
the minimum requirements of the State Department of Education, 
but the city conducting such training classes may demand a higlter 
standard of qualification than the Regents' examination. In other 
words, in New York all legally qualified teachers must pass the ex- 
aminations prepared by the State Department but local authorities 
may exact a higlitr standard. This plan of city training seems to 
l>e objectionable because of the tendency towards a st( ady inbreed- 
ing of home talent. Any city system should choos*- its teach* rs from 
the whole state or province, seeking always the best that can be 
secured. To limit itself to locally prepared teachers leads frequent- 
ly to the employment of mediocre ones and the com^equent dt teriora- 
tion of the whole system. In this respect the system of Ontario is 
superior to the .system in operation in several of the cities of New 


Admmion Remremenl>. 

all candidates m.,V* k^ V}" """raissioner of F,l!Z„f-^ w prescribe 

know edee of thJ^ moral character avprn»T„i?r, °' "8'^' Pos 
an approved fonr™'""''" branches of InS r '^J «"'' " «<«« 
is re^u.CTfor Hdm"'''''''''™''' """rse in a M„h - ?"■*?"««<"> ^on 
study in a Wh^"",'"" *° a State No™«l I k" '',''°' " academy 
CommSio„er*of'Fr' "^ ""ademv to re™! ^h*^'" ^ «°"'«<' <>' 
of fortyffiveminL '^"""'u'"" must Include 2%) , T/""^^ "' 't^ 
- Part^terrre:"""" -<^ ^''^ '"""'^^ierarp-rSd' 

lr?S'a^^,^^-s^throu«ho.t the 

a- .-.'^-™-. -pS: arai-i- 

ff<stoj,-_which includes the thr ' r n ^^^ Periods 

.^««h of which mStt coh'rJl'''n"K «""'^es, 
Ancient history continuous for a year, 

History of Great Britain and Ireland '" " ' 

'"1SS^:'-"'^in« the cSwt of Civic "^ " 
J^fathematic^ which includes '^^ " 

Algebra ' 

Plane geometry,' .' .' ]9o 

-Sacnce— which includes h;„i , '90 

and physics taught by X' i'T*" Physiology, 

Biology. . . ^ ' "y *''« laboratory methS. 

^^y^'"" 190 " 



I Foreign languages, which must include 

Latin, or „„. . 

French, or.... ?fX '*''.','"'* 

German y^v^v/:::::'.::':.:::'/: ■ ^ •< 

Drawing—for which adequate instruction must he pro- 
vided durmg "^ 228 " 

Vocal Music 1 1;9 " 

38 weeks are considered a minimum school year. 
' . ^''''PP°''>t™<'nts/"r admission are made by the State Commis- 

tcndcnt These officials are relied upon to recommend only such 
candidates as intend to teach, and are likelv to be successful Pro^ 

JceuTarlvraHfiij T'^ Tf"'''*''"" for-adm^tf^rstudents'^^ 
■.tfenHeH w„h ^ Candidates twenty-one years of age, who have 
.ittended high school for two years and who have tuunht su.. css! 
fully for an equal period, may be admitted to a Norma! School bu^ 
h,.y must complete their full high school course beTorethev can 
be graduated. Provision is also made for admitting on sneciaT con 

S^a^'c'S?'''"'*^ "' f y *'-5!"'"8 ^''^'•«' grSatesTuniver'- 
icat?, Th ^^- '" ^"°'' «tf.''.ding, and holders of life State ccrtif- 
leates. The minimum condition for admission to citv tra nin.? 

iT irfr""" '""" " f™' y«" ««""« in an appr'oved h gh 
Educati™ ast%he''"'''""'f"V^P'-^''="''^'* ^y *he Department of 
sS r^nHiH,Lr of "^."'I^'O" requirements to the Normal 
inChschooU fn^fh» .^ "^T"" J° *'•'''"'"« ^''^'■^ -naintained 

:z^Bx^,^r>-^ "^ * s™ res 


pr<-paration. T|i,i» ;„ (i„. . 

Inknml Orga«uation ^ disappear. 

m any of thp ln,.o j k , • •commissioner of Ediifnf ;„„ . ^"^"<^''"or 
Tho i„ 11, ^'"^' "oards is filled hv th„ n ''"M'^?''on any vacancy 

TM, 1 ,?' '"'volves aritelv imnn jT,™'^"^'^'*-. The management of 

il* ; it" '*'"''' must also trflnsmit '^'"mmissioner of Educa- 
verTh-' '•on'iition of Sr NormaiXTnf T^' "' Educatio^ 

the cxaMina 
>f nourH g /eii 
' made in thi 
f for cntprinj; 
in a<lvancfi ol 
•r mu-t have 
<ip<l and aisd 
•'ty supcrin- 
g ''andidatfs 
ario pursues 
' candidat.'.- 
odel School 
't many un- 
iiR, 80 that 
the Normal 
rhp present 
tute for the 
in the mln- 

ior the im- 
Point<'d by 
)cal boards 
y vacancy 
ic general 
' of study, 
makes all 
-h school 
'fter they 
1 - advice 
that mis- 
cment of 
his staff, 
iment of 
f Educa- 
of the 
il board 


The Normal Schools in Ontario are managed directly by the 
)epttrtment of Education, without local Imards. The Department 
■mploys its own expert officials, and on their recommendation, after 
hey have received suggestions from the principal of each school, all 
nutters relating to the organization and management of the Normal 
rhools are determined. The principal of each school is held re- 
ilMinsible for conducting his school in accordance with regulations 
prescrihed by the L.piutnicnt of -Education. The Department 
through its inspectors u' all grades of schools has every facility for 
ii.^tertttining what teachers of the Province are eligible" for appoint- 
ment to the staffs of the Normal Schools. In this way the Depart- 
lent of Education has Ix'tter opportunities for securing suitable 
I'achers for its Normal Schools than New York, where each principal 
icommends the teachers after receiving the approval of the local 
oard. In -Ontario, the teachers are appointed directly by the Do 
partment of Education, though frequently the principal of the 
ichool concerned is consulted. Usually it has been assumed that 
:in appointee to one of positions must be a specialist in some 
ilipartment of academic work, but the Department has wisely laid 
(Icuvn no regulation as to the quaMfications of candidates for'these 
positions, Academic degrees are not a sufficient guarantee of fit- 
ness; the teacher should possess scholarship, natural endowments, 
iind an appreciation of the peculiar <lifficulties of training school 

The students of New York State are required to attend the 
J Normal Schools for two years. They must be sixteen years of age 
[and their professional training at the Normal School must be pre- 

I ceded l)y four years of iidemic work in approved high schools. 

I I ncloubtedly New York is in advance of Ontario in demanding two 
ears trammg in the Normal Sf hools before graduation. It is im- 

I po.ssil)le for students in the Ontario schools to complete satisfac- 
torily in one year, the vast amount of work prescribed. The ma- 
jority of them are young and inexperienced and the change from 
purely academic work to purely professional work is so great that 
they always waste considerable time adjusting themselves to the 
1 new situation. Students frequently complain that thev cannot 
siitisfactorily review all the academic work required, prepare the 
excessive amount of new material involved in such professional 
subjects as science of education, and conform to the requirements 
ol elaborate courses in art and manual training. It is evident that 
If Ontario teachers are to be thoroughly trained, one of two things 
IS imperative: either the work will have to be considerably curtailed, 
or the length of the session must be increased to two years. The 
policy of the Depfirtment of Education has been to extend the period 
of training for teachers whenever economic conditions would war- 


an<f who haw b "n —1^^ 'T?"'"!'»L"'y P"''"<«»K ".tirement, 

during a period ofthh-^^v "'''!"* '" '^'''*'' "'''""I" '"• '-Isewhorc 

years* F>e /hu.. ht, aeh r?; "■" h"? '''■'"•'""' '•><• 'W" of seventy 

knnuttlly/r^ha" „fthe1^rLv»r hi '" "''■'■'^!" '""" t^e State 

of retirement Sv^h~inl ^'- 'f"' '''"<' 

or pri .'•nal, that the sum n^7 ' . ""'' V' " ""•''■fvising official 

am' i, i: . ca*e of a teaehe? hilTh ""* '■'""'^'' T" ^^'"'"""^ ''«""". 
hundreU and nftv dollars ' nh ! ""'" ?""' ''•"■' "'» ^■'"'«'d seven 
teachers at an eafli r a^e whn ^ "' P"""^'"'"", '» -n^'le for retiring 
incanacitateVi TV. ^ ' , '"'^'' become pliyslcally or mentallv 

durii tt*rn''rears*'?JreHi«t''l''''"^ r"' ^'?«"™-. ""^ ^^ho 
ment W88 a teacher in oTi^het preceding ajipfication for retire- 
reached the Zof J" enL v*^~ . u™"'-^'']''''''"' "^'i "^o has 
r age 01 seventy years, must be retired on request. 

ditio^n1uL'e"5ir(n mavTr"?!* '^P^Z''"' ^-q"if«"' ""del the con- 
of Education ^ '''""''' °" ""^ '"•'''■'■ "^ the Commissioner 

without'^heC'reoui'remfnf "" *!i^ "i^P^T ^P""""'' ""^er (1) 
mentally incaXSeHT^; ,f "A"'''' *"" ''™°'»'' Physically or 
may beVet red by o'de^of'th'' r ^■'' ^.'^fj-'rity of the local board, 
reu oy order of the Commissioner of Education 

for ten ^^.^'^''^h^L^loZrP'''^'"""''^'''''' formal School 
years, and Vho ha^ iZJ^^u '•'"" ,?" ^^'^'^^^ Period of twenty 
eertiaed byThe uZ^T/ ^^''^^^V Tr'^^^r '"""P^^tated, ,i 
aioner of EducaS ut^u'^ be retired by order of the Commis- 
the State to reth-ethoslwh^r'r' *'"'* it.'f.""">datory upon 
named in parSph m r„ »n T." """"' ^*'"." *he conditions 
paragrapn (1). In all other cases the Commissioner of 


KdiH'Btion mny uso hw clincri-tion in iiwuinK onlcrM fr^r tin- ri'tin- 
mi'iit of tcHcticrii. For xonii' .vi'iint. Ontario lm« bi'cn dtruKKlinn 
witli the prol)lcni of supcranniiutioii of itM tfiichiTx. Tlie 
Dcpurtnicnt of Kduciitlon hii» proposed a liliiTal whimp of mipcr- 
unniiation, but tliin in mucdi dive rxitv of opinion aniunK tiwhiTit 
Il\cm»ilvc8 as to it» mcritH. In all prolialdlity, the proponed 
Siipcranniiatiori Rill will hcconii' law at tlii' next mrctinK of th<> 

( 'nurnea nf Study. 

The curricula of the Htatc Normal Schools arc prcscrilM'il l)y 
thr rommiwiioncr of Kdiication, and include three general profes- 
nional courw'H each of wlii<'li <(ivcr« a p<'riod of two years. These 
c(;iirscs «re:~(l) elementary tiachers' course, (?) kindiTgurten- 
I)rimary course, (3) Itindernartcn course. The elementary teachers' 
courBc prepares ieachers for thi' grades of the elementary 8ch(">ls of 
the State. Tiie diploma isMued to a graduate of this course is a life 
license to teach in any public school of tlie State without further 
examination This course is given in each of the State Normal 
.Schools and the vast majority of the graduaten find employment in 
towns and cit'es having more tlian 5,000 of a population. The 
kindergarten-primary course prepares teachers for the kindergarten 
and the first six years of the elementary schools. Graduates of this 
course are authorized to teach in any kindergarten in the State •■■ 
in the first six grades of any public school, without further examin 
tion. This course is given in all of the State Normal Schools excejic 
ise at Brockport and Plattsburg. The kindergarten course is 
^iven in five of the ten Normal Schools and all graduates are quali- 
fied to teach for life in any kindergarten of the State. Students who 
complete the kindergarten course and -who afterwards complete the 
work in certain specified subjects of the regult/ Normal course, are 
granted diplomas licensing tliem to teach in Imih kindergartens and 
elementary schools. The subjects of itudy for each of the fore- 
going courses are set forth in considerable detail by the central 
authorities, who also determine the number of recitation periods 
that must hie given co each subject. In each course observation and 
practice teaching occupy fully twenty-five per cent, of the whole 

The courses of study in the Ontario training schools arc pre- 
pared by the Department of Education an<i issued yearly for each 
type of school, in the form of an elaborate and detailed syllabus. 
The courses for the Faculties of Education receive the approval of 
the Department of Education but are actually prepared by the 
Universities of Toronto and Queen's. In Ontario, the text-books re- 
quired by the student are nearly all prepared by the Department 

• * 


>Mir. III,. cciiirwM iif Btudv i„ .h!. V ■,/"'"'" ""' work n nn.. 

. . A iiniqii,. feature of the Ne«. V, ,L v . 

I'l-ion iim,|e for Kivii,„ „„rm, I ■ ■ "^ ^"''""'' «<''"'<>l>' in th,. nro 

"''""' »!'rl< for wl.ieh it i/^t , 1. i T*" '" ''"■'' "•■'."ol th 

fo ioH-inK Nxrinl eou/MeS are b ve t, '""'" '^""""l «''l...ol th,: 

'^''.'I'ft". (1) ...e, rawV;,,^ t. , re,.,u-e teaeher, of vo,.at„n„ 
printitiK, N) patt,.rn miMnTri f\ ' ""I'-liine shop praetic, n 

(IJ thev must he at liiwt i.pv,m. "' '"""Wing„ 

uate, of approved high So /."''JiVr "' '*' •""' •"'» t .""^ra J 
h«v,. ha.1 four years of su,.,..s^f„7' if* ^"'""f"' "' "»'t"r.- lUfe wh , 

o^^^o^^r/h''*'''''*'-*''"'^'''^™"' -^^^ 

*" """ O' inp nrinrinul V...A '^""•"t lor that trade at ti,.. .1: 

o regular .lay s eh" ."work u Hud t"'"""'"' '» ''"ver two"y,t; 

hia eourse i„ ,.^,,,,1 ..ll^ '"„''„"/"''''»>'« I'<'rmitted to undertak,' 

<l.ploma. .TI...Kraduateroflhe"ee.;L '"',""'""» •"»>■ »'"urr ht 

provided .^;;-pe;sr :i?'i:j;^ :tf '^'"^'F ^-"^S 

- h>- the (■o>nmissiou,.r ,rK,t:,'^^^- "'^er institution 
. hree years and the <iiplom, .n ^t™.' ^^^'^^ ™urses ex- 

approv... .,, 

': those at Predon.a and at ^"...^^^l^^^^^^l^^ 


iml (Irawinn. HtuilcntH cnnnot !«■ ailmittod t(. thc« ur«.« until 

they have fiimpli'ti'd n four yciirH' hiRh n'h<H>l n,»THi<. Thcxc .s|«.|.ml 
.ourwM ■■ov.r 11 |),.n<),l (.f two v,.iirH nml Knidimtiw iirc .nmlifircl t.. 
imi'li th.w imrti.'uliir «iil,j.rt» m iiny puhlii' whiH)! of tin. .Stntr. 

The Normal Srliool at ( u'IK'h i(Tcr« a ^prcial coiirw iiiconn,.,- 

lion with th.Tinular two yrars'coursi' for thrpriitarationoftcaclHrM 
who (loKirv to hiTonic train,..! lihrarian-.., tl„.K,.„. 
.ral rourw for .• tiacliiT-. with thi. work of a »p, cial tec Imi- 
.■.inihrarv i-omw. Many scliools .io not rcrpiirr thr full tinif of a 
Iraiiuil hhrariun, and l,y ..mph)yin({ a Kradiiatr of this r.,urs,. the aii- 
Ihoritics of Hiii'h a whool may arrange to have one tcHcli,.r itivc' imrt, 
' III". I'll!- V,' ^'"' '■'"■'' "' ""■ '''»■'"•>' "iiil tin. remainder to r.Buhir 
tcarhiiiK. 1 h.. orxanization of thr Ontario Normal HrhiKils would l„. 

much improved liy the i-mploy nt of a trained lihrarian in ..aeh 

:-chool hueh lil.rarian »hoiil,l rank as a normal school master and 
niiKht he responsiMe for niviiiK the instruction in some ri«uliir sub- 
ject, an literaturi' or history, in addltiim to his lihrarv duties His 
•irincipal work, however, should he ineomuTtionwith the lihrarv and 
lie ouRht not to he hamp<.red In .th.-r iluties infringiiiK upon histim.. 
I he avernne normal student do..> not know how to use a lihrarv ad- 
vantageously and has no conception whatever of lihrarv methods 
All normal school lihraries should he thoroURhlv equipped with hooks' 
charts, mails, lantern slides, anil visual aiils of various kinds under 
the direction of trained librarians, who are alive to th. .lucatioiial 
possibilities of such a collection. All stmlcnts and m, inbers of the 
staff should be able to reciive prompi and svmpatheli,- assistance 
Irom such an official who has the library so organized that he can 
rcM.ii,- rniTt the needs of teachers, students, and ex-students 

" . !" > -in-trainmg should acquire the "library habit" during their 
n., nchool career and they shoul.l recc-ivc definite instruction 
111 the use of books and in library methods. Moreover, i-ach student 
t'li r. ^^ " ""''^'"''' "f responsibility in connection with the care 
ol the library and should be required to satisfv the librarian that he 
IS competent to organize and care for any school library in accord- 
ance with approved methotls. 

The Oswc'go Normal School offers a special course in manual 
arts, and a cotiimercial course is provided at the Plattsburg Normal 
.>cliool. Provision is made for the admission of students to these 
courses who have not complet<Hl the usual four years <if high school 
training, but all such special cases must receive the approval of the 
( ommisaioner of Education. Diplomas are grante<l to graduates 
<it the manual arts course qualifying them to teach in the public 
schools. Graduates of the special commercial course are licensed 
to teach in any commercial school or in the commercial denart- 
'nint of any public Bchooi in the Stale. 


r ■ 1. 


^'^^r-'-l^^^^^^ - provided in ^. 

graduates are supposed to Ch sTmo o? fh '"""'^^«"d though the 
cortifieatea are granted CaldirfnTr u ^T »"''J<'<-t». no special 
of .qualifieation must take eou ses at n^h '"■'' 1? ''''•*'^" certificates 
tario Agricultural College X, ,1/ '"f*' "tions. The On- 
year, an.l also summer course, for he ''"""?« *''*' "'"^demic 
m service who may wish to qSy 80,^(17''™'™'^'' "^ '^"-^hers 
vide<l during the school year at the Ontarirp M °'"''f .'" '"^ '''<' P"""- 
and usually the Department of Su"?!-'^'' "^^ '^'''■''"*''' 
courses at the same institution CouS^s " ^^Tl^ ^"""ne^ 
arranged m the household science ^.i? household science are 

Toronto. Candidates who cTmpVt'^^hfhTV' ^l'" ^"'^""'^J- «' 
t.ons m any of these subjects S Z„t h p'^P''''"?™taI regula- 
quahfymg them to teach the subTect^n^m Provmcial certifcates 
Province. "uoject specified in the schools of the 

Obsenalim and Practice Teaching. 

Both Ontario and New V/irU »!, j 
ration and practice teachfnl Tn'^C ^"^.™"'"'f.™tion to obser- 
ve maintained in all Normll Schools am) I'.f^**'™ ''^Partments 
do practice teaching and observatron wort th "**' "i;'' '"^"""^^ to 
vision of critic teachers. TheTkv tmll^- fT "'"*^' *''^ «"P'-'- 
tained m twelve cities of the & » " "^'-'i''".''' "^'"^ are main- 
observation and practice teacC 'i the'lT't'' 7't'' f^^'itiesfor 
cities. Provision is also made for ?h^snr»e?f'i°^.*^''''' ■"''^Pective 
training in comiection with the courses arr«l/- "I'^l"' ^'^^''- 
for the training of rural tewhere Wh *^^'' '" *''<' •>«'' ^''hools 
servation and practice teachhg^eca&''^' Practicable the ob- 
under conditions which approxiST!, °" ! VJ""' '•"™' »«l>ools 
will subsequently experien^fn hTsl^n ° hnni "*} *^t -^T"K ♦^'"'ter 
courses offered by the Norma 4nK^T !l "'■ ^° the three general 
ted to this work is M fo wft"?^ *^<' proportion of timfa^™. 
600 forty-five minute perioTs" out of » * T'r"*,"^ ^^^^hcrs' couri 
or 26% of the total tiSie in the k^derlaH "' ^'^^ '"'='> P'"oZ 
llT^^r "'"Hte periods out of a total of^ fS?""?'? """"*' ^60 
the full time; in the kinHo,.™,! ot .^,060 periods or 27% nt 

periods or 28% of the^wh^irUme^""''' '"" ""* "' " totafof^O^ 

of thJrStVo°oirSortelLl:^^^^ ^he authority 

critically by being brought "iontact ±h "^.'■"■™ted to observe 
m school work. For this mn^. * J^™ P"P''' actually engaeed 
the practice school t^ oCveX' ^o^rfof*' "" ^'"'•'" ^ dZTof 
pupils are brought from the prac7ce Ih^r"","*"* **'«^'"'". or 
lessons by their own toachers o^bf ^.r^^^h^ S/s Ttlil 


presence of the students. Besides teaching detached lessons in the 
practice school, each student is required to take charge of a class 
of pupils continuously for several weeks. Since much responsibility 
for discipline as well as for instruction is required of the student, it 
is claimed that the prospective teacher is better fitted by this method 
than by being assigned single lessons to teach at certain specified 

In general, the method of conducting observation and practice 
teaching in New York resembles very closely the method of carry- 
ing on this phase of teacher-training in Ontario. It is evident 
that a greater proportion of time is gi\en to observation and prac- 
tice teaching in the New York training schools than in Ontario 
schools. The former also have the advantage of providing 
several weeks of continuous teaching, while in the latter the only 
continuous teaching is a final test when each teacher-in-training is 
given the responsibility of teaching and governing a class for half 
a day. The training of the Ontario teacher would be made more 
effective if more continuous practice teaching could be provided, 
the teacher-in-training being wholly responsible for discipline and 
class work. In Ontario, however, there seems to be closer co-opera- 
tion between the staff of the Normal School and the staff of the 
practice school. This may be due to several causes. First, the 
regulations of the Department of Education require that there be 
frequent conferences of the Normal and Model School staffs in order 
to secure concerted work and harmony of theory and practice. 
Then again, normal school masters are required to teach "model" 
lessons both in the Normal School and in the Model School to classes 
of Model School pupils. The regular teacher of the Model School 
is required to be present when the normal school master presents 
such lessons. Moreover, whenever practicable, normal school mas- 
ters and teachers of the Model School are instructed by the regula- 
tions to observe practice teaching and to make jointly the criticism 
and valuation of each student's teaching. 

The Normal Schools of New York have their own practice 
schools but in Ontario all training schools are compelled to use the 
public schools of the various local systems for practice teaching. 
Even the Faculty of Education at Toronto and the Toronto and 
Ottawa Normal Schools, which maintain their own practice schools, 
are compelled to secure additional class rooms for purposes of prac- 
tice teaching. Arrangements must be made by the Department of 
Education with the local authorities to secure extra accommodation. 
The disadvantages of such an arrangement are greater than in the 
city training schools of New York, where practice facilities are 
provided in the schools by the local board which controls both the 
city system and the training classes. 

an'l rfevelopintth/ *''»•'''''"• « the fflosr,^* ^^'/^'^ date, ,7w 

tant duties of a ♦„!?'"' '^''o should be enfJ . ","« '"' the goverr 
virion wa« mA7o'The !,* '^'^ "« "n^ fhn'^ith the^p^ 

au honty through offidl'^?'"'* '^™ance of c'tffi T""' """'P" 
(afterwards coimf,, """"a s known as th» ^ '"T"°''ates by Stat. 

teachers in A» " P''«'«'°' time figrfiril'""^ '"'™ madeT™^** 

wents, courses of sul/'w*'" """'ority, anj' T "J'^^'' the supe?- 

i? the schools of A fr"*" " State NormaPJ ^T" "-eeeiv^ne T dT 
Departn,entf°Etcft*l' '^■■*''""' f"^^^^^^^^ 

dates who are loE f^ ''^°*'Partment 7f #T "?" '"eeessful 
pass examinations nrl"'"'!:"'' ^ teachiSL fn ^"^"^ation. Candl 

I. TheSut . "'"'*' "f^^afflination and 


S"' ""^ •" ''^'^''^ than the .i„i„„, „,„i,,, ,^ ^^^ 

ment of Education, while all oth^rTl^- '^''""^""^ of the Depart- 
ter, in charge of ihe r^^ X ^SS'^T'''''^'''' ''^ t^eCs- 
more responsibility is put upon the stKo » "nT' '" ^"t"™ 
all answer papers. The success or fall^f" ™"<^ "Pon to read 
tically m their hands though »h^ ? "' ^*"'' student is prac- 

confirmed by the Department of FdZV"""*^''^ **""" ™"Ke 

Y^tem, life eertifieatesareTsued to student"; ''^ *''5 ^"^ ^ork 
the training schools. In Srio nl™, ?°" Graduation from 

issued to students upon graduatfoA Snt 1 t^"'*"'"''*'^ ''"' "o* 
students, who have had P?evbus train1n/«nH" *'" ^"^ "^ »-«de A 
are consequently considered eli/ihi * * "'' experiencce, and who 
other graduates recei^Simcertifi r"*""-'.'^* credentials. An 
which the certificates may brmadeoem^nf '"' '^° ^"'''' "f*^" 
of the inspector or inspectors under whZfh J °" «™?""*'"d*«<"> 
The inspectors have some opZrtu.J«rfnr »■"'""? '"'™ taught, 
of the actual school-room woKs^ehfL 1, <'''™at">g the merits 

hT ffr'*^ "f ""^ ''"dents h^vehaTn^nr ^^ ^"'^ '^"'^ '''^ 
but yet they receive permanent cerlfficates a^ fh 'T /"P^^nce, 
>«"« traming course. Since New Ynrt f.t ^ ™'^, °' "'«'• two 
as Ontario in the matter of issSLnerm^ *"" ™'''' Precautions 
eachers must receive life certificate ^thn^K."- "^■'"fi-'ates, many 
It must be admitted in favour of iS^wV if T ''"'^''y °f 'he* 

!^7™'ir«?ks continuous teSngis^onelv.; ^"T"'' *•>"' '"v 
end of their training course In thi«^ ^^ students towards the 
afforded of judging of th^tudents' teaSi'f ''^ opportunities are 
where students teach isolated Xso.^ «nH ? ^^''' *?" '° Ontario, 
tmuous teaching during their periroftai^r^''''^''''"'"^ "" »'"'- 

.ained"wK"ei\'^to^ral fe^Ts'^ «' qualification are main- 
stantial progress has been made t the ^Jli""* ''"*"' y"*" '"'^ 
oachers preparing for these "hook AfteTTt"'?*' "'"'^'''d "f 
'lents jviU not be admitted to training i September 1917, stu- 
untU they are graduates o? a four "SS h T' i"' ,'"U *^^^'" 
theentrancerequu-ementmadeeaullfn^.?^* "^^°°h J=^«" with 
iTban teachers, the ruralTeachS wX atl'li-''"?*'*'''P™"P«''«^e 
receives but a one year's couraeTnlhi^h tht.1 ?''>"^"**«« '«'" he 
the urban teacher is trained for bfo year, ?n ? *™,""¥ "^'a*' ''W'e 
«^hool. In New York, as in hZi;^:^^''^ !^tolrJl 

Demg cxpcntleii tn im 

York Stat,, i" to TmL^"™"'' '•'«-'^ rortiiat * '^4 ™'-,?^ *•"■ ••"™1 

In Ontario no distin. i^ '^*''' "^ 'fachers of town *'^°^'''.''" of rural 
pare teacher/for 'S'"" " """f'" '" the oolX"A'"^.":ty schools. 
All students must take 1 ""^'''"''■''' '<>•• urban or fi""""? *° P-"^" 

valuation of $20;^ ''^'!°°1 districts (eetions^\'"'- for example 
an assessed v^u'^ "' '"««. and only 4^00 .I^Vi^^ *" a«s<Xd 
districtsTfVew «ork5 i*??'** or m^^ 'jh"' *»t™ts having 
?ome method orcSiS'** ''V«'<"eed to five or «1 ^?i^ '"^ool 
improved fn A ■'™"<'ation, the rural «„k i "^ ^'^ thousand hv 

Lastly, ,n N^^ y , "'^ ^bJch now exist, 

requirements set for ,°I\ *'"' ^'ate has never rliff .• 
and those enn^JdLT^"'^ employed in th. 1 "'"^''''ated in the 
tions do not Se'sne^ • r™"diry^™h'J'„,f<' elemental^ schools 

ship IS concernedTut " "" ,**1"ately quaHfiL „n ^" """P'oyed. 
essential to skilful a^^d^S?^ '*'''' ProfeiiXjtr«i„i ^".^ scholar- 
tarns at Albany a State r^n"* "''«' room work jf ""i^^P^^ence 
schools. The couraes l ,".,' *'«r '*'"'^'> trairteaeh. T ^•"''^ "ain- 
are purely colwSanw **"» formal Co leL c^^"/<"■ secondary 
school gradual^ should Sf"-"'"'""*'' 'eaS to de °" ^""^^ and 
high schools, and eSh'f P/*^ented legal?v from f ^l- ^^rmal 


uates, and 1 liO Zl "" ^'330 teachers nf if ^'«^ ^ehools of 

- Jn Ontario there are 


:'S.6% non-graduates. *'"^'"' t<""^''e,s college graduates and 

no a(th:;??^?o1/rin" a^^l^S'sS?' '"t?"*''"'S '^'^''' *'"' '""''- 
.^.onal qualifications for high sehoortL?^ . "'""'f'?!'' ?"'' P^f"-'" 
specificallvinthoDepartmenVTr,»„i r^ T '""• <'««"» "-ry 
such schools who do?s noThoW Inli'™'- 'f"!."''?"* can tea.h in 
sistant's oertificatrobtdned rom 1.1""' u*''"i" "'»''' '^"hool As- 
l.-«e graduation is notlTato uTe nZl^wX^^'TT' ■ ^"'■ 
of teachers m secondary schools hnlH T„ ""*''"■ K^cat majority 
two advantages over New Sk nli 1 ^ '"'''- ""'"'" ^as these 
«-hool '..achTrs are collegTgradua e %ff ^''''P'"-'"'" "f its high 
to teach in high schools SnlfsftZ add aHer;''''''' "'' Pf ™'«"<1 
-nal training to adequate ac^d^i Vr^io"/ "'"" "' "^"f"'' 

Missouri and Ontario. 
Clas^eaof Training Schools and their Administration 

Kducatn"a"d':s1a^^'"sX'intetrnt^; Tl™.* ''^'^ ^""^ ''f 
Superintendent, who is dccted bv the nLlf "■"''*"'°; ^''^ *^t«f 
chairmanof the State Board the ntwJ^I'' 'Z"^ '"'" y""^' '' 
"r, the Secretary of State and theitt'"™'"';;' *"""«' ^^^ ^ov"'"- 
areex-officio. NominX tWsho«rrlt '■"'"^"^'•'•'''^'■"'' "" "^ "'ho™ 
tional interests of th"state but nr«i''i'^?,"P^™'''™ •'d"™- 

the investment and carl of scho*^! f,, 'f"'' '^V™j '^'"■'' ''"""i^t^ '" 
Public Instruction sresnoLible fir th ^'"'- S^P'-ri-tendent of 
and the school funds for th^-TrenJ^I;'' .'"P^^-^'^'on of the schools 
laminations, for the vaWnJ^ of ^n™ "' "" ""'^J'""^ ^°' '<■»<•>'<'■•»' 
teachers' certificates vaTrooughoTt'esi^r'' f°%*'><',r"i"K of 
'ng of annual reports from all schnn i.ffi "'. ""'^ ^"'' '""^ ''''"''v- 

Kach county hfi a sunerTntendenr l ?Tf ""i' '*"*" institutions, 
school meetings. The Taw orlvW Th',' ^^^ ""e People in district 
'ciucational expert in ord^^to m,. fv ^^i*"'' "?•'''''' ""'«* '«■ "n 
"•'■quired of him are even morp''?ilL"'" th« Po»'t-on. The duties 
required of a countvlnsn ™tor in n„f " ""'' ''^^^^ t"^^" 'hose 
following. The countv s^merfn ^ f "'' '^ '"" "PP''""- from the 
ings each vear, and dSeach'a; t,?* ""T' ^"''' ^''^ P"''"^ '"'^t- 
Teachers' Institutes. On,? ve^\^"'""" ' ""'* """^"'^t ™""ty 
-pend five days each vear at IZm^TJTT'^, ''"i""'''' »'"'« he 
-< twenty days each ye^J T^^'^J^^^ I'SXtS 


about a moro h.™ • " department of FH„^.' ^ '' '<*nis 
the inspeS nf ?°"'™' ""-operation of the trJ' •''° """''^ bring 

session of the iT^" ^ ""'"""'■' °f e«=h botd ''TI"'''";'''nt being 
Senate, apnoL^« fw ''*"^' **>« Governor wTth th't """'' '''«"''W 
years. Not »„ JTk ''T°'« '<»• each MhOTJ tn ^ .S""!™' "' the 

»a confers diplomas and deer^ „„ *! *™«fion require^ 
Lilce New York Missn„r; T^'*"*" successful candidateT 

?rant of $750 per !nn^j!°°' '°. '^'>ieh the Stale mak*^ '"^ <">« 
ing is maintained Tk' P-'o^ided a class of ten t?. 1, ' *■ 'P"*""' 
classes are held unrf ", ^*«»wations fcr erad^i*?'''*?^'"-*'''^''- 
A graduate ml? ''"l"'!/'''" prescribed bvthe^?l«°" f""» these 
aft" a yet "attend'' '°' '^° ^ears i7any n^f 'f I'r'^'^t^ndent. 


training of urban and rural teachers. The State Univeraitv nf 
Missour. also offers training for teac».ers, and "number of Trivp?e 
^o leges, offer courses for teachers, but these latt"rTn«trtutiS^,o 
not receive any appropriations from the State. TeaehTr" of semn.I 
ary schools are prepared in University Faculties L in Ontario and' 
m advanced courses that are provided in NormafschooU in bo?h 
<>! cases the degree of Bachelor of Science may be' sl^^ured 

l-les cTiXrhatTNit" V t'"';"'"? '."'titutions in Missouri resem- 
()nt»rio LVhn ! ■ Y.t'' *'"' "^'^"^^ materially from that of 

)ntario Both Ontario and New York have more distinctly central 
.zed systems of education than Missouri, especially in regjrd to the of training schools. In Miiouri ab^ut 25% of all 
teachers tramed are male, while in Ontario more than^W nf » 

oachers are male. Both Missouri and New York IreSi of a 

iate thT;oTo7tt'" *'"' ^*^' "l ♦'I" Ameri6a„"u&orele! 
Kaie ine work of the elementary schoo s to the female teacher 

Lti uVoisTf'''h XrT "? ^""l-'y^^ ■" '>«'• -hook or in "othe; 
mDiXta^inithenU T*'?^' ^," ""V"'" ^^e female teacher is 
3 *k *»"•"« the place of the male teacher in both the elementarv 

iveniy divided in the Normal Schools wh e in the High Schools 

?emai? 'ttiTh"*r*1%°"'^ '""^^*'' "^ »" the teX^'wet 
7^1^' .J 5 *^'^ ''^' *™ years there has been a mere handful 
of male students in each Normal School, which is ^ 7n<li?ati\n 

n?.«!fiT • "* ^x^"* y?""8 "<"» "e attracted by remunerative 

positions in connection with the industrial and commerdarexDan 

Snso/theZft?- ^"''^ ''""'^ ""' "— Tconomie con- 
Zt L„ * "^t" ^^^^ y""" ^""8 "en are disposed to consider 
t^t opportunities are greater in other walks of life In the 

manc^?v TZT *'"'^ T "? P™'?"^*' <>' immediate per! 
manency of position nor of a future comoetence In finfor,;, 

Uy wfth^wTedri""* "r* r'?-"« - "P™*^"'™ on^anC?: 
h'aSng pe'r,T„ne7 o'f ?hn,"""'*^' '"8.'''y.>'ecause of the constantly 
tra7h»r Lff ° J f? engaged m it, and because the male 

teacher has been superseded by the female tekcher. (See chart) . 
Admission Requirements. 



ri-qu.r..mcnt« within the Normal T^ ^rapl'-tP their high Bchml 
the r..gul„r toacher,' trainTn^oirsfirh '*'''''*' P.^^'-^^dini to take 
whatir'/" ,""'"'" 't possible for a "tude„T"f !S^"tution. This 
whiit IS call, ,1 an elementary n, rm„^ "udent of Missouri to enter 

prepare ,aehers for rural seWis Lj^th- ^*"" """"o designed to 

regular high school coS^s^ '■•'S 'fca/'f ."^ P'^«°» »' 'he 
that t..acher-training classes mlv h f 1^^, "^ Missouri provide» 
schools and that student whn^" «"!'';''hshed in approved K 
high school work mav enter uwn^rh''^'" '^° yea?f of reguW 
m-tted to undertake Uisworrrnt.n^- ™""'"''- before bein/pe" 
declare by pledge that itirfh • '"*<'"'l'ng students are reau^Jt^ 
fession In^e.^h of th^rh^^rsehn^r *" ""''' '^e teSg prc^ 
engaged whose work is to nff °°'* " 'P'^'al teacher must ht 

school management and tdS5r"stud'\'''^T"*">'^P^^^^^^^^ 
plete two years' work miy b?ranked ^ "'T''"' ™'^<"'««f""y cor^I 
uates, and on passing certain St«fl*^ ''^«"?'" •>«•> school grad- 
temporary certificates " '""*«' exammations are awarded 


and New York provide ditTerentiated courses for urban and rural 
teachers. The fornu r has such courses in the Normal Sch(K)l8 and 
in the approved high schools, while the latter makes no provision 
for the training of rural teachers as such in the Normal Schools. 
As has been (lointed out elsewhere, Ontario makes no attempt to 
uive specialized training for any type of sch(H)l As constituti^d at 
present, however, the Normal Schools give a training e«p;'ci«lly 
suited for teachers preparing for urban schools, though the great 
majority of those being traineil will eventually find positions in 
rural schools. To meet this anomaly, the Department of Education 
is at present making the experiment of using actual rural schools for 
practice teaching pijrposeg. Ontario demands higher academic 
qualifications of those preparing to be rural school teachers than are 
required in Missouri. In Ontario, as has been seen, no one can 
enter a Normal School until he holds a Normal Entrance certificate. 
In Missouri, on the other hand, students may enter upon a rural 
teachers' course in a Normal School directly from an ordinary urban 
or rural elementary school. It must be admittxl that this particu- 
lar course covers three years, and after January 1917, will cover 
four years, but it is very doubtful if the average adolescent is mature 
enough at thirteen or fourteen to appreciate the work of a teachers' 
course. One advantage of this course is the long time the studimt 
must be in actual preparation for teaching, while the Ontario stu- 
dent seldom considers seriously the work of teaching during his 
high school days. In Missouri, academic and professional work are 
frequently taken up at the same time, in Ontario no attention is 
paid to work bearing upon the teaching profession during high 
school courses. The advantage of this separation of academic and 
professional work is that the student must have a thorough grasp 
of the former before he is permitted to undertake the latter. 
Furthermore, in Missouri, the academic requirements for those 
looking forward to rural school teaching are so limited, that such 
teachers must be very indifferently prepared. A large percentage 
of rural teachers receive little more than the equivalent of one or 
two years of high school work before they are Ucensed to teach. 
The standing demanded of such teachers would not compare favour- 
ably with that required of students entering the Provincial Model 
Schools in Ontario. Indeed a Third grade certificate, valid for one 
year, may be issued by a county superintendent to a candiadte who 
has academic standing very little in advance of that required in 
Ontario to pass the Entrance examination to a high school. In 
New York, the Normal School courses are almost entirely profes- 
sional, in Ontario they are purely professional, but in Missouri the 
Normal Schools offer four year academic courses preparatory to 
the regular training courses. This last arrangement seems a useless 


Th,w .xaminntioiM are not comnnH. „ • "u" " N"""' School. 
')ppartni,.nt may rraulatn th„ ,^^'^? ^'Z*" '" "hafictpr an.l vet th 
oy raining „, low^rfng L rt^fflf, ff*^'^*''?'' '-! »"it th.! .Cand 

all 8tu,lont» who comply with7.?rt« n .f j" P™^"'"' training for 
high schools, iK-causo" the Hear.? " "'/'T''"';"' "•quir,.men£ at 
•tandar. « are not ho rigidly rnC^.,. • *?<''"'r«- Examination 
M;«»ur. it should b.. Scd out ir,!", yf": In Juntice ?o 

d,™and.. of students VntcrnKuwn't"' '''" i™'" '''"''"''•'""'""« 
courses will compare favourablf ^JTi .L xf*"!"' """"a' "chool 
».nce m all oases four ye^of 'Lch'L^k'leZX'""* ""'"'^' 
/ntema/ Organization. 

»endat,„„ of the presidenTof the N'^jf «' ?'''""°'' °" ■■o™"^: 
academic and proffJ^ionaJ work are tHk"'"'-^^^'"'- ^mce h«th 
and smce courses cover onl two tW "'V" **"' ^°™"' S<-'>ool, 
« necessarily large and a pelt varf^; nf °";-^''""' *•»' f^-^nlty 
The most important departments fJeS^ri u^^"^^' '« P'-<^™ted 
English, modern languji" hj^torf J**h'"'*"^*' ' "wr science, 
Jccts, musie, physical Xcation?d„^»< *""""*'."' '''•nical su^ 
A competent professor ^Dlaepd in I, ""; *"<* actice school 
ments and usually has seve™!. '" ."''"Ke of each f these denart- 
jeveral activities of e^rS ,^1''''" associated with Mm '^Jt 
the faculty, the presidTm be ng "x^VcTn '" '''"P "^ committees o? 
tee Thus there are comSe^sTn Z ''''V'''"'' "' <^''<''' ^m-nit- 
■fication, certification and graduation .fhf*"' ^'«ndi„g and class- 
tS "."■ '«?7"*n''ation^a'^dpSonf :!r' '^'"'P''' ™">-cises, 
slh f V '""«' ""-""e, catistics and 1^' '^*"'' T"""' ""'' -^nter: 
Such elaborate organization b«om™„^"' """^ ^^""^ history 
where student' -omo!- f oecomes necessary in an in»».*„*; ''^ 

Normal Schoo Mor^T/^f »" ^^^ as the^^do in ?h Missouri 
courses are attended bvTa™' ""^1"""'? '^^«""'<' «nd proSona 

■f ^^i/*^' ??^ institution at Warrembuf ^ organized to be really 
Not only is there this thor-olgh^oSS :,f tt S^ hutf 


nintinuouii attendance of students from ^ear to year makeii it poo- 
sil)le to have nurrpuful Btudentii' orxaniiatiumi. For example, in 
this name institutinn there are six literary societies each of which 
meets once a wwk. The progranime consists of readings, ileclama- 
lions, essays, orations, debates, songs and choruses. The patrons 
from the faculty assist the several societies Riving suggestions and 
rriticisms of the programmes. In addition to these ri^ular weekly 
meetings, contests in oratory, debate and declamation are held 
.imong the different societies of the school and among the different 
•■iihools of Missouri and other States. Two religioi." organizations 
ure maintained, the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A., each of which 
holds regular weekly meetings for devotional purposes. Both of 
these organisations are affiliated with the State organization whose 
headquarters are at St. liouis. A special Y. W. C. A. dormitory, 
accommodating fifty or sixty female students, is fitted up with every 
modern convenience where students are able to get tttl)le board ut 
S2.50 per week and rooms varying in price from *5 to $10 per month. 
Numerous clubs are organized, including a science club, a debating 
club, a dramatic club, a tennis club, as well as several musical organ- 
izations. In connection with this paflicular school a large alumni 
association is organized which has a memliership of nearly 2,.500 

In Ontario all appointments to the Normal School staffs are 
made by the Department of Education, and the internal organization 
of each school is much simpler than in Missouri; the academic and 
professional work are also more distinctly separated. Before enter- 
ing an Ontario Normal School a student must spend from three to 
four years in preparatory work, but the Normal Schools of Missouri 
offer academic as well as professional courses. It is recognized, 
however, that the Normal School is not an institution for general 
culture as such, but that it is essentially a professional school. Its 
purpose is to so equip students with general education, professional 
training, and practical skill that they will be eminently fitted for 
teaching in the public schools of the State. Both Ontario and Mis- 
souri agree, then, that the dominant interest of a Normal School 
i<'ntrp8 in departments of science of education, methodology, and 
practice school work. Academic and technical prcaration must 
necessarily precede or accompany professional instruction. In 
Ontario these must precede while in Missouri they may either pre- 
cede or accompan}' the professional work. In Ontario, since the 
iiurmal school course extends over but one year, practically the 
whole student body changes from year to year. Partly on this 
account, and partly because of the excessive demands made upon 
the students durii^ such a brief course, it is almost impossible to 
eive proper attention to literary and social organizations. In this 

»PH>KmphvXns„ ';""'"*" "f "''^-'urHion^" for"?',*'''"' ""'■••™UrH^ 

'wture coursTnn I 1 '''"'"'" '" maintain,! ,? '^' . "^?'"'"''»»''UfK 
offer tl,,. S^.l? V™'Tt'"nn"^nt comm , tk"*"" ""^ '«<''''ty 

'''■tt.. c.„n^---'-« y-, »o t,,„tV^i^rcTrrj^t 

dirpft th "'."^"'^K and no plav" Hr.. I .,*"'"''■''' who spend a 

wint^rs'a'mtnifi'T' f"- ^"^ ^choo ':I^£TT' P-""''' '" 
pupils of thoTfawf A?"'"'""' ""k h^ b™n„*:°I **■„ pa«t six 


i.irmal ilrill iin.l gymiiitttiin, timi. xhoulil !«• afr(>r<l(><l for Hthlctin 
.111.1 Kum<« m <ir<l.-r to prcpBrr rvi-ry t.-nclwr tc. propiTlv nn<l 
.,.p..rvi».. till. «,H,rt» »n.l ,>l«y „f hi. pupil.. Th.. t,.H..i„.r wh., "nn 
■iitrr hrnrtily int.. tl..; .pint <.f tli. pinyKr.nm.l, wIh, ,.,,„ .|ir,-t or 
ri-r.'rpe a gninc, <«tahliHh<'H n iwint .if .•..niact with th.. puni' 
.iinnot Im- WH'umI in thi- fliw< rmim or in any othiT way. 

Courwt (if Study. 

Th.. Stat.. I),.partm..nt of K.l.i..Bti,.n of Mi«,„uri ,!,«.. not pro- 
«-rib,. th.. of " f.,r the Normal S..h,K,l.. Th.. rurriiila 

i .fiv- Normal ur.. pra..ti,.ttlly unif.irm, not l,y law .,r 
aiithorily, but l.....,.ii... of voluntary aKr...m..iit among th.. .oh.wls 

thomH..|v.«. Ka..h ...h.n,! provi.l... ...v,.ral .liff..r,.nt*, while 

in Ontario th..r<. i. I.ut on.. e..ur.e pr.wrilM..! for all stu.l-nt. and 
thw cour«o I. uniform for all the Normal Scho<jls of the Provinco. 

Each Mii»..uri Normal School off..r8 a .preial courne d™iim..d 
to prpparo teach..™ for rural ...ho.>l.. It cover, thn^. year, hut 
«tu.cnt. who have complct...! tv . year, or more of hifrh »^h.)ol 
work may .ecur.. a rural teacher'. e..rtifi..ate after nine month. r.X 
.Icncc work. The usual aca-lemic subject, provide.1 in a high 
.ch.x,l are tak..n up during th, fir«t two years, hut much att.-ntion 
1. given to the suhj,.ct of agri.ultur... During the third year, tW 
lish, agriculture, rural school managi.ment, rural school geomaDhv 
rural school methods, rural sociolop-, .lomestic science, and in.rus't- 
rial arts are studunl exclusively. NT. mention is made of psychology 
or science of education though observation ami practice teachini 
receive due attention. Unlike Ontario, Missouri trains her tea<.h.« 
m problems of rural communities, iheir certificates are iwued for 
very brief periods and are renewable only upon the completion of 
extra work accomplished during actual service. The Ontario rural 
teacher has the advantage of more mature scholarship, but the 

nlrTuf" ¥i'" f.'^T ?''<■<!"«*'■'>■ P'^-P^'^'i for the problems of 
rural life. The latter having chosen this particular phase of work 
IS usually contented to devote his best energies to developing into 
a more efficient rural teacher; while the former frequently looks 
forward to the time when he can escape from the countrv to a town 
or city school. v^nu 

Each Missouri Normal School provides an elementary four 
years course of high school work. This elementary normal 
school course is an extension, by one year, of the rural schSol course. 
It parallels the regular four years'work of a high school but by selecting 
certain subjects such as elementary psychology, school administr* 
tion, special methods, observation and practice teaching, the candi- 
date may make application at the end of this course to wite on the 


ma) School become a r/"?*^'!^*" '"»>'. <iurin« attlnw/'''''^*'** °f 
0U8 selection of eZtK^f ".''«'' «'''>ool grXte ^hT *' ? Non- 
qualifying him as I \! r";*^ «' t*"" end of fo * Vr^ ""^ " i""^'"' 
eompiablp to "'h "*■''•''■ fof two yeis X/ ?".* '""*"fieate 
Par«i in thVhi^hth'orr/?"'- "" "Smi^w^k'nJr, T""'"^ 
"J the Ontario Normals! ? ^"""^ *'"'"■<' « no sXm /' i*** P""*^ 
of Missouri can obtaii th "S''- "'dinariiy a hieh scTnJ?!^ *''";"^'-« 
only after one yeartatte^H '«''"**' «"«fic8te valid f^'/'"''"'"'' 
eessful completion of onil^"?'"''/* " Normal Schoo nZt ^^'^ 
wsuea a life certifi„„f """^ yfaf s additional work f I. iCt °" ""' ™e- 
«hown, requi^s for L T^? advanced 2orZf'cm,'r,^°™u*' School 
course four years „/w?-*''°" ""e compSn of 7k' ^.^^ been 
lent standingTom o?h '""^^PP^oved high "ehJ ' "'"'"''"taT 
agriculture, geon-anhv K- "■. "^"tutions. The suh?„ i °'".*° '■''"'^a- 
!on, P8yohoS?En^,^;h k'°P' chemistry, hygiene S '""F"* «"> 
t"-" and practt&'-^*^7' '"^''?"atii| p^pst'°S^°f eduea- 
those of the Alom 1 *• ^"esesubiectaof,;/; J ' ""observa- 
to do on. year's w^rl"-^ '"T'' ''''''ept thaf sS„'i''"'"'Pond with 
aceomplished A7nr» r™?,'"' '" "Evince of whaf h„ V '^"''<^ 
demanded f"; thi^ P"''t«ai'y the same admi^i„„ ^ ^'^°'^y ''"en 
Ontario, the gr^,'?"",'" ^O' entrance to rU^^'TS"'"*' "« 

-"rse in Misso^J^-^th ^L*'"'' '"?•"" ^ vanned "fi^r*""?.' '" 
advantages over th„ A * ■ ^"^ Prof»ssion«I t™; • ™?' school 
« gran^ on ™mnr„f° r'° K^duate. The^r ' ""*' •"" *'<"ne 
of the Normal s^K V"" "^ *''« ™"rae but in n?"?™' certificate 

Teachers who gradimf« f "^ ""f* taught successfX f 1'^'' """"ot 
teach in urban Sift '<T '.''^ "^vanced nTrmir '''° ^''"'• 
t'on between thp„'°*^^*M'ssourimf^p^??!-™"""" "'"ally 
i"^ certain "aJvL^^rti'o- «' ™S an7 urbat L""^**''''"'*'''- 
teachershavedlcTdTwH^K*"'" ''^<'» duriii Zirf''-'"'?- '^^'^ 
'•"•al and they nre^, **'"''" ^^"^ future w^rkfJ * *'"*""ng, the 
fould lead t7SeTorr'""«'y- Th?s I°heme o? n' """" «' 
fession. The ann«rl!.* ?^ '"^'•''ney of tenure in *k f P'eParat on 
tends to promnf/ . °* J^'*'"*^ant4es are Zf H '^.teaching pro- 
selves, but X hf,^' *^*'"<^tionsfrot onlv ^1"^" "^'^"ri system 

eratic 'countries such H^'"*' ^'^^"baniTZL^'^^''' ''x'"" 
to discourage rath.A^'''f^''^"ces are undesiraW i''™' ^n demo- 

Miesouri a?;N:^f„Vwhr°"^'^'' »" '" S^^ 
P-nt thel^ .e^^^^t '^^At'^'^i^ViBF^- 


Unlike Ontario, Missouri provides training for teachers of 
secondary schools in the Normal Schools. A teacher who complct^ 
vl^ofsT Tf^lu" *" proved high school and then attends 
Normal fechool for three years is qualified to teach or supervise the 

Z''ji'^ t^-'^^''^'^]- .?""•"« ^^' third year the teach^-in-tr^n- 
ng must give special attention to the subjects which he desires to 
each when he becomes a high school teacher. His diploma is a 
life certificate and represents ability to teach the high school sub- 
jects in which his major work has been d .ne. 

'i.h^l"' b*'""' '''"*"!fu'" ""T^ '^ """""^ '" ">e Missouri Normal 
Schools, known as the college graduate course. The candidate 
must have completed four years of high school work and four years 
of normal sohoo work, when he is entitled, upon successfully p^! 
ing his exarninations, to receive a life certificate and the diree of 
«nn ^ie"" "ff ^'JT '"education. In Ontario, no degrees in^educa- 
heC?*? f*S..l""'!-^"''"5^^ ^y *''*' Normal Schools nor bv 
n™f^»^ f ° Education. The degrees in education represent 
perkfce " "*" ^ °''*""''' """^ ^^ teachers of ex- 

UnUke New York and ( nitario, each Missouri Normal School 
offers courses in special subjects. These sp,.eial courses are opTn 
only to students who complete the regular course and elect to do 
special work in some subject or subjects. Such a student who suc- 
cessfully completes two years' work gets a regular life certificate 
quahfyi,^ him, to teach or supervise in the elementary scSs, and 
iect nr^^h-*'*" "frked ."special" with reference to Ids major 'sub- 
ject or subjects. Likewise a student who completes a three years' 
course receives a hfe diploma qualifying him as a superintendent 
principal, supervwjr, or high school te'kcher. His Sploma lo 
indicates that he has special qualifications for teaching certain 

^^Z ' ^"TJ"'^^ arts, primary teachers, music, kindergarten- 
primary, and fine arts. One very wise provision is that a teacher 
cannot speciahz. without taking at least the equivalent of a regular 
teachers course. In Ontario, a teacher who wishes to qualify for 
the teaching of special subjects such as art, manual training, house- 
b,^ nfnlfri "v- ""'r'jt do so during his normal school course 
but must take his special training after having completed the regu- 
lar course This has the advantage of enabling such a tea^h^o 
concentrate upon his special subject after his feneral preparation 
a^ ^ ^'"■"'"'i- ^\\"^ *■"; disadvantage of taking more tiSe 
and expense, and usually special teachers do not receive suflScient 

prepara'tbn" " **"*"* ^^^" """^^ **"" '^^'^^ 'Peoial 


Obsermtion and Practice Teaching. 
cau.o_of their spe'eiaT'fi^Zf f^'^.S^i- .chool a?e ael^tj'bt 

of teachers that th.r ""''' '""formity prevS i^tf education is 

The practice schnni „. ■ x ■ " "' any mere theorist. 

•i^^t^^^iZt^'f^^ '^hiehThey e^^*° •'""Wy th^m for 
supervisor, and hnthl^^ ^"*,'*- ^ach department ;• '^^Partment 

'^ork. Fr^^entlv^TTr*'"" aft«'"ne Vel? nf"*' ?'?P"% to 
vice on obtSnin^ t h p''^"** ""^^ "e preparin^tn **""""« ^^^ool 
ing in all tht */'"'' R^Kents' certificate .^*^'° *"*«'' actual ser- 

chosr^:S^«*^; otherwise the^^'uL^t'tS'^pS 

normal training must^l.K™-."''™.*' '«king the standlri »°°'' * <"™ 

cerned for his cri^? u^""* '"'tten plans Tc !j,"'"*"^ 'wo years' 

course, student. w„f ^" *''<' regular twn ,,„ ^ 'essonpre- 

also Riv^n in the^ "'""entary one year courle ^,r ^^"^ Practice 


the instruction in primary and kindergarten methods as well as 
supervise all work relative to the art of teaching. In thlTwav 
theory and practice are most closely coordinated Ind harmonS' 

ln„ i J ^F-^""*'' *''* «'T?'«?™e"t» for observation and practice teach- 

sl^l^ '"xreirr^'h w " ""^^'"^ P^""** *" »*"' O^ntano Normal 
Bcnools. 1 here are, however, some important differences The 
prospective teacher in Masouri must do about three times as much 

&omaF S^Cnt ^"*T '*"<*^"V Then again the MisTuri 
iNormal Schools furnish special courses in teaching and supervision 
to a limited number of advanced students who Me seekZ to T^ 
^Sir"'"'??;' ?^ P"°<:iP''l»- Such students mu?t have good 
academic qua ifications and their professional standing must have 
received the highest grading. They must also have had a" east two 
years of successful teaching experience. 

th.^Lf^"'?*' i' Pfde in the Ontario Normal Schools to divide 
the practice schools into departments with a view to giving students 
special preparation for the particular kind of school in which thev 
hope to teach. Each student must teach all grades of public school 

s?hl tna w'i" "kT^ ^"^"^ hinmeUte an ur' or ru?a 
school, to a lower or higher grade as circumstances may arise The 
Missouri pUn has the advantage of turning out spedaUsts in the 
work of particular grades, but Ontario has the advantCof giving 
the leather a perspective and thus acquainting him with all nS 

service that'^'hr''- M ?"/'' f/^'^''^^ d'^™--' "hen m aStZ 
he^n'h» .i,„, 1^ special talent for some particular kind of work, 

whok field and it^ *° '""r'*'* '\^' 'P''"'^*^ 'f •"-' ^nows the 
r«Vfn,.t ik ■ ^''" specializes. Missouri would seem to over 
if Zt/lH" T^I^^S^ "' IP^is'^ation in the work of the p-ades 
It must be admitted that there are some advantages in spedaliia- 
tion during traimng in the Normal School. In oSio%hTwould- 
be teacher must teach in all grades and frequently it hMnenTthat 
a young teacher who has taught but a lesson or two in prSv work 
afterwards finds herself in charge of a primary r3^[h ve?v 
rdvZtT.'Pf"*"'" ■"' ')r ^««P?'^ibilities': Thus Missouri has th^ 
advantage of preparing the student both in theory and pracfe for 
the particular phase of work in which he hopes to engage 

.n^ '° Ontario students frequently complain that their observation 
frlP/if*"'* te«ph>n« are done under conditions entirely Sent 
OftS^. «T1'S "*"? *'"'y afterwards find themselves L^teacS 

tpZtn"' a1i 1 1""^ "i? *'"■"> fa-^verh'iii LaCa": 
Fn «^h:^?' his observation and practice teaching werrdone 

m a school room with but one class or at most two, while in h£ 


diviclu;,Iity and inkLTvc VJ^^r, t ^""^ }<^<^<=i>'^ who lacks in- 
profes»i„n1 only the stroL-m^ L T"**.'''' ?,"•* ""^ '^«ve the 

sets himself to^ the tinT^Lri^^th-*^' '"''''''*'''' *""='"" 
sheer force of ohampf^rk ™'«ter"'8 ">e situation. Finallv bv 

tion recetVd iX't 1 ntrXT 'T^ °' the defective JJepV^: 
ing to remedy these def^rtatLv P"'^?*' ""*"'"« »"empt- 
sent to the ^.mtrrto spen^' « l^Xrvf V *'""'''T ^"^^ b^™ 
teaching continuously fiTat WsTT^lf „ ^'t"* ™™1 schools and 
this method are apparent beeaXfrmuen^ih ?" r"^^^""'' "^ 
of the rural school are Quite ?nnln„hif^ •^'^ teachers in charge 
gestions or helpful critic?8ml ""^f"''''^ " g'ving any valuable sui- 
vision by normal mStersrecausInftl^r 'f*"" '^^ffi""'*'*' of supe?- 
and practice teachiCinthesrrural..^rt'''""''K °^ ""^^--^ation 
tjons of this scheme Sevta" emeri v."'"' 'k""" *'"' "'"'»«- 
First :-the organisation ofTtyDicaZ^.n.,»H''H ''I™ , ™«««sted. 
the rooms of the nracti e ZuJ\F \ ungraded school in one of 
It would be diffi -uTt to ,ecSr^' unTf^'*^ ""l"" ^^e Normal School, 
tuition were provided and the uT I " ^^h a school unless free 
charge was aLxceptionX strCTrsnnin '' *''5* *»>« teacher in 
as a teacher. Second ---th.. , rl?*"^ Personality and specially gifted 

of a typical ruraUchool. T^e pup?ls°coald rf '"" ^*"«" ^^"""^ 
by offering free tuition or thercould bi tL^^Ti'r *'"' "t^ 
communities. Both of these „iLoK 1 t'^i'Wortcd from rural 
the ungraded school under th^Tir^T! ^^^ advantage of bringing 
school authorities and "Sequent 'v^oud'henr'?" "/, *'"' »'"•""'' 
students to many rural schools for I ^ i f '''""•''•' *" lending 
disadvantage of both these plans is that h* t ^T' ^''^ ^reat 
are artificially created and woX be sn !. ^^"'^^'l"' established 
training. It is imperative thTt he n J. '"',!^«*«'-<'d by students-in 

have experience in'Ictu^ruraf schoo"^ Tt'wrT^ 'T'^u" ''"'"W 
tried m Ontario this vear aqiSk^iv. «?'' -P'*" ^^ich is being 
schools with the Noraal Sch»f ¥hr^ "ftt"""" °' ""*'"'' ^"™' 
connection with each Noma?SehI|T °'u^'^ ^"' ^^"^ "sedin 
teaching. The principalTsadvaSe °f °u^^"r«9" '?"'' P''«'««-= 
of transportation of students but i^J^° *'i" P'*? " *•>« difliculty 
means of radial lines or motor busth,^^- "^T "^ ""^ "'""^it by 
be insurmountable. So Sr the student' '''''''''''^"*''«'' ""K^ not to 
teaching in rural schods and teS'litPPf "«*' 'he privilege of 
inconvenience. The principle seZ,tnh^ "/".^ "P '^*'' ^"'"e 


this department of the work is looked upon as the most serious de- 
fect of a student-in-trainmg. In Ontario, the first observation work 
mTf'°^" ".^y«tr**'™,' y "■•jnged so that students will become 
acquainted with the working of the practice school. Then each 
normal master arrai^es to have observation lessons taught in his 
subjects by the critic teachers in their own rooms. In addHion 
each master teaches lessons to small classic of pupils brought to hi.s 
^c ure room to illustrate the solution of som^ teaching problem 

Ts^^-ofl^l^l-r-' '-- o'^--io/dependf;;t 

Examinations and Certification. 

„hi K f ^^J>^'"i pointed out. there are thres institutions in Missouri 
which function m the preparation of teachers, the High Schools the 

Normal Schools, and theState University («,e chart). Teacher-tain- 
mg courses are provided m approved high schools, and examinations 
for graduation from these courses are conducted twice a year by 
the county superintendent. The question papers are prepared un- 
der the direction of the State Superintendent who issuL ill certifi- 
cates to successful candidates. These so-called county certificates 
are of three grades-Third, Second, and First. Third grade ce^ 
tificates are valid for one year in the county where they are issued 
To secure such a certificate the applicant must pass examinations 
m spelling, reading penmanship, composition, geography, arith- 
metic grammar. United States hiUry, civil government, physio Z 

»rp viH?"'*"^"""'*"-' ^"^ Pedagogy. Second grade certificates 
are yahd for two years in the county where issued. The applicant 
must pass examinations m algebra and literature in addition to the 
subjects required for a Third grade certificate. First grade c ,"! 
tificates are va id throughout the State for three years, and mav be 
renewed an unlimited number of times, provided the holder meets 
certain prescribed professional requirements. In addition to the sub- 
jects required for the Second grade certificate, the candidate must pass 
an examination in one branch of history and in one branch of science. 

hit. hi ^^ r""& «'"-t'fi'=''<^ "e issued only to persons who 
have had at least eight months of successful teaching experience. 

t»nt 'ff ''2";"* y^a^s there has been a very determined and persis- 
tent effort to raise the standards of these examinations. In 1912 
candidates for First or Second grade certificates were not required 
A^,:,"l°'t "T T^ ?f"^ *'"'''' <"• its equivalent, at an ac- 
credited high school. During this year (1916), applicants for 
these examinations must have completed three years of such high 
school work. After September 1918, such applicants must have 

completed four years of high school work, or its equivalent The 
holder of a First grade county certificate/having twelve months of 
successful teachmg experience, may pas^ a number of Siona 

years'" XTr^v^^^nr' T"" " !*?*'■ ^^^'«™*" vaHd forTvi 
years. After forty months of successful teaching, the holder of a 
five year certificate may , on passing additional professional exL?na^ 
tions, receive a life State certificate. This certificate is in all rZect^ 

he Xatf "' *"- "'" '^^n'"""*^ "^""t"' °" the complS o 
the regualr two-year normal school course. Through this lonir 
process of examinations and teaching experience, a telcher finaUv 
ra'rTo'r,:.';.^ ^^0^'^'''°'"" '*""'""'' -""' graduatrotrr'S^ 

.V. J™ 'Y'° ""^ '"' *™'"'"^ ™"""« '■» hwh ''■•'ools and hence no 
system of county examinations and certification. The only Lca^ 
scheme of preparing teachers is provided in the Provincial Mode 
Schools, which have been described in chapter I. Even in the^e 
^"fL M f"*'""' '^r '' professional preparation ordywhere^ 
a« the Missouri county system provides both academic and profeH 

r?he h^h Thol" T',^- ^"■*" '™^"*'y ^he teacheS^prtt 
in ine high schools of Missouri were inferior in seholastip »* 

IchoT^With'tl^n*""" ^r'" !J''°,'""' be^n trZe'd inflSoS I 
ocnooi. With the present demand of three or four years of hiirh 
school work, the county teacher of Missouri ought to b" he emfal 
academical y of the graduate of an Ontario Model Sch^lthoZh 
toTaf^"Z'f:r'""''"/ V^" '"'^^ would seem to be'sSr 
cVntcertitlteTarteach if :^Til''o%t^^^^^^^^^ 

KraSroZVfi^'J-'''^"^ ^ ^'l'^" certifi'^.ate hrmusl oS 
veir I^ mZI,,?)^ ^'"*"'"1 ""^ ^"™<' » Normal School for one 
attTnHin^ Missouri, the normal school certificate may be secured bv 
tlr^^ll"""!. '"''?''•" Teachers' Institutes and paSb^^ cer- 
tain academic and professional examinations. The Missouri nian 

It maori?vrt''h'°" "^'^n * '"'' excellent teachS:?Tut'^^£^ 
stand^ds^Tf'hf"'""''^ "' ^j"^"" «"^^ certificates of various 

courses of study. At the conclusion of the rural school course 

s7uT7 *'"'•"' ^""'^i """J ^"'"^ »*"■ "'"■n-ntary scT^ls the 
student receives a certiBcate from the State Department on recom- 
mendation of the normal school authorities. This certificate is 
^^n Ii?*- ^ T' '" "^y '."■■".' *'''"~' °f 'he State and is renewable 
Xertaln nr« lIT"' 'J^"""' """"dance, or upon the completion 
of certain prescribed readmg courses, or upon attendance at Teach- 
ers Institutes. Each Normal School issues a Regents' certificate 
vahd for two years throughout the State, but not renewable. The 
preparation for this certificate requires an extension by one year of 
l^Zli "'^°°' T'^ "^"^h '"PP"'*'' t° ^ the equivalent of a 
^!.^ /""fj?' ^'J^^ "^"J™' ™'"^"- This certificate qualifies the 
holder for the teaching of certain subjects named in the certificate 
The regular normal sehoo certificate is granted after two years of 
specific professional trammg following a four years' high sehoo 
tTltate Th^h^M"*'"' " "fV^r'fi^ate and Is valid tLugho^ 
the State. "The holder is qualified to teach in any public school 
and IS not restricted by law from teaching in a high ^hSol. A Wgh 

Norma 'tt^l' ^Tf " 'T'"-"'' "i'" * """«' y"'' ™""'' '" » 
^uJT f ^'' *''r 'a?t ye" being devoted principally to the pre- 
paration of special high school subjects which the prospectivt 
teacher hopes to teach. This certificate is a life license valid 
throughout the State Normal Schools also grant lifriiplom^ 
and the degree of Bachelor of Science in education to all whosuc- 
ZS::: pPf" '"'iV/'^''- "".-"dance. The State UnWershy 
maintains a College of Education in which students mav qualify by 

nlTlf "f l"" '""^'* r""? ^°' " "f" diploma and the degree of 

(1) The Rural High School Certificate. 

(2) The Regents' Certificate. 

(3) The Normal School Diploma. 

(4) The High School Teacher's Diploma. 

Diploma^''* ^'^'^ °^ Bachelor of Science together with a life 

m n/"f°^.5*"1°'" ^^^^T' certificates are issued by the Depart- 

Norma Sot'l"™il \^^^- '-'^""^ *""'^^'' "" P^eP"^«d inThe 
Normal Schools; all such training must be given in the Faculties 

rl^ T^T^ ^ the successful completion of the normal course! 
Grade A students receive permanent certificates, valid for the Pro^ 

Thrnni^Wf Pk P ^- "'"t"** '^''"'' '"^"'"^ certificates valid 
throughout the Province for two years. As has been explained 
ttn f ♦V.*'"?' certificates are made permanent on the recommenda- 
tion of the inspector or inspectors concerned. It is doubtlesw a 


permanent certificate, tTin^ie^'gi'lS ' M'"^"' «''"'*» 
training course. This latter i.«SuT i*" * **° yea™' 
practice teaching is requentlv done .mn''^ '',-^^''?' ''•'™"'«' 'ho 
« really not always alu34?hat«f ""fi"'" ,«?nditions and 
m actual service. Ont^rby ^antr„/tt,p t^* ^^ '''"J^ '"ccessful 
vents, in a measure, thTwrtffifnn ?f • °**''°' "*'^'fi««'e«. ^ 
puts th. heavy resiron^ihiHtv nf 5 °2- ' '"™™Petent teachers and 
certificate. umn'T^p'^*^,^' "oh^t^^" f*""' ^t""- P'-™»nent 
an unenviable position.'^Sse if he .n^ "'"":? ""f ''"P"'*""- '» 
recommend thata teacher Sve a neZfn™!'""!!?.™''^ *" 
almost certain to be coMider^ n?rtf»l'^f^ "*,°? certificate he is 
small degree of couraee to^efi.f ♦ *"'' "°'"''- '' '"luires no 
teacher, ^ho has manv^U° entiS fr^endtTTh""'' "" '"lo-npetent 
inspector does not hav,- th. kZI mends in the commun ty. The 
woSh of a teXl iX„efsi°„rhe"n'd" <'V"''P."B''f the trS^ 
but twice a year. Moreiter if hff.^ , 'f'""]'^ ''^'^ the school 
that a teacher receive «^^ hefearlemly refuses to recommend 

C?n:^'"«^'l^"^"^"^"-d^^^^^^ a chance 


ficate. (10: 69) In MiLTri fl. iT'T?!?* '^°'"^ "^ certi- 

county cirtificateareenlX^to^tten^''"''^"''*''!'"****^^^^ 
Institutes, or to take rSffcmf^r """ ''■'■•^'»' Teachers- 
higher grade certificate Du^ngim ST^ *° ".'^^'^ » 
Missouri teachers attended summer 1?T ^ *"'*" thousand 
believe that many teachers inZ^arin^n'i;. ?^*™ '' "*«'" to 
ate into routine w^th the in«„*??° *""?' t*"*"" ^O'^ to degener- 
fossili^e. ThCTeis however T*""* "■?""'* *''"* they theSv™ 

of the Pro^nJernsZZr-^kfrZd'o^ZT'^ 't"' "^^^^ 
express their desire to return to the Nnrm„1 at frequently teachers 
ing. Doubtless the maioritv nf t h * .? *1 ^^°°^ '<"■ '"^her train- 
Schools are too SCu, dj^ve tt'"*" '? *he ^"tario Normal 
course of training provided Thl^/hepeatest benefit from the 
niade much more^E?ty sJme sllghc' chat ^"*'^k° ""^^ "^ 
of ^-anting permanent certificates Iff., f* *? '" the methods 
students and teachers thit the normal tf^" ^^ \"»!e«ted by 
two years, but it is doubtful if it cn^H h^^Ll'""^ 'hould t 
at once. Instead of havW two finif 1 '•^J™^'' *° that p, | 
for grade A students andon/i^ i / """'^^tions, one at Eai,. ■ 

be advi^ble to have bul onVfinar^xtSTtlon^f'^^'f,'''^' '} '""''< 
June. Permanent certificates wnnli ^^1'°." '°' *" students in 
and interim certified to^LrB^t^e^r"*^ ^ «""^* ^ 'tudeicU 
of receiving a permanent re^ic^^^'tZ^JS- J^^, 


ing six or seven weok. S ■ ? '""■»« course cover- 

and methods fe varies "^S A" T* ' ' ?'"''«««'""■•»». 

the teachers would teVanSVm^^ *f »ucc«8ful completion 

mendation of the normaf th^l Pf^^ne^* certificates on recom^ 

numerous advantaZ It w^ d r^,?' J*"/" P'"" """''1 '•"^e 

Bhould continue to^^e a student aST" *''"M'"' ^o""* ^^^her 

since certain preparator^readi^ won W.r'^"*- "l*^ */" "'"K "^hool, 

forward to recei Wnrpe?manen?errt?fii^ '"'".i'"^'* °{ "" "''"' '™ked 

what the mponsibiff™Z^5'^^'"*'?- ;'* """'d l™sen some- 

recommendation would hTV^ ^1 ." ">»Pector, though his 

admitted to the Nwmal SchoSZTh ^^"^ ""^ *«'«•''" ^""'d >>« 

mal school maste "X were 1—1^^,^^^ "''""<'• ^he nor- 

the teachers be wanted intlri™ "^i '^. '"'' fe'immending that 

upon to decide wSct or not^hos^f.™*^ ""^'^ now be called 

permanent certificate Thus th," nnT? *'"^^T '*'°"''* '^"^^ 

8hare with the inspectors the resn^nS* "J^^'. "««*«" "ould 

liarmonizing of^eoretica^ t^Sj .^^ certainly result in a better 
now obtains. "'*°'*™»' traimng and practical experience than 


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In the two preoodiM ..hapfw, the m.-thocl- of preparing teach- 
ers in New York and Mimouri have been <lc»erll)e(l Homewlmt min- 
utely in comparwon with the system of traininn teaeherH in Ontario 
m order to prevent any unnecissary rep.-tition in d.^cril.imr the 
preparation of teachers in California, comparisons of a more eeneral 
character will be made. 

Clataes of Training Schools and their Adminiatralion. 

California has a State Board of Education consisting of seven 
ni"l?,hr ,"''''"'"'!■'' '.'y fhe Governor. The State Sup.Tintcndent 
01 Public Instruction is elected by the people and the three assistant 
superintend..nt8 or commissioners in charge of elemcntiirv schools, 
secondary schools, and industrial an.! vocational education iirc iii)- 
pointed f)y th.- .State Board of Education. For each count^ there 
IS a County Superintendent of Schools and a County Board of Edu- 
cation composed of five njembers. Each school district (section) 
has a Board of Trustees of three m, inbcrs and in each city having 
a chuler, there « a City Board of Education of five or more members! 
I he State Board of E<iucation issues life diplomas, adopts and pub- 
lishes text-books, directs educational investigations, prescribes the 
conditions of special and high school certification, and mak™ 
accredited lists of Normal Schools, kindergarten training-schooU, 
and hfe certificates of other States. The County Board of Educa- 
tion grants and revokes teachers' certificates, prepares the cour8,.sof 
study, and conducts teachers' examinctions. 

at»t J??l*'^™i °i ;''<''?e"t'«-y ."''hools are regularly prepared in the 
State Normal Schools of which there arc eight, at San Jose, Los 
„„Ti ' J "^^P"" ^'^°' S»" Francisco, Santa Barbara, Fresno, 
and Arcada. The traimng for high s<diool teaching is a four years' 
course in a university with an additional year of post graduat,. work, 
one half of which must be devoted to professional training, includ- 
ing practice teaching. In ( iilifornia, each Normal School U in charge 
of a Boa, d of Trustera constituted as follows: the Governor of the 
State and the State Supenntendrrit of Public Instruction .1 cx- 
oBicio members of each Board. There are five other meml.. rs of 
the local Board of each Normal School, whose term of office Ls four 
years, and who are appointed by the Governor on recommendation 
fil^* n 5*%"i *'"' 5*"'" "' California, Until recentlv there was a 
joint Board of htate Normal School Trustees, composcdof the Gover- 
of ^h «w'"T'"'™t^'.°' f"''"'^ Instruction, and the presidents 
ahnikh df H^"™"' 8«'>°o' Boards. This joint Board has been 
abolished and its powers transferred to the State Board of Education. 



inis m. th H of fontrol alw ohtai.,- fn ^^'''.P"""'" m it «« (it. 
IllS" 7 ^J^""" « M example of thi.?v J "'*•*' /".' *««*' NormiU 


Normal 8rho«l», iiml in f«? In 1 i ' f^"' :" '. '" contn.lling 

of Normal S,.hool" ami v!rt,litJDo^^^'^^^^^^ 

tion. Th.. latter p,w«.d a n i, 1?^ " ""•Stj""»"«r-I»f Kduoa- 

BenU which ha, aS»^m 'l th .1^, noTi;;,".'f"?h" ?""" "^J""' "^ «'- 
of Normal School TruVtV'" T", •,',"'/*''; f"™":' State Boar.l 

<»lucational oualifirationH of mr. I ~ ..'•'"''.'■"iy. '" '" '''■">»"'• 
«.n<l thu. to diHcontinurthc " . ,™ r "rffi"'"''"'"'""^'' »""'"''' 
cipak of Normal School dL I i "'■"™''" nxmbcrs. I'rin- 

New York the principal i, r«,„.i, . '; " Pxtremw. In 

cation for the gencrarmanMf.m n 1 V . '""■'"?" "<•■■ <>' Edu- 
Conn.'cticut there is m. sT» ''"' l""' "' "" *''<»1' In 

each principal controls"hi;own",e"ht;[rr'.''' ," ' "l' '■'"™"' ^"hool.; 
tlon of teacher, in n..xt to im^i We. """>"""<.V <" Prepara- 

.ln«le^tdy™ct&lhr±- ?l "'."™':"'"'l -""t'ol favour, a 
School .^rtem To av„W h T"""*'^" '"f"'' "' ">" ^»«t<^' PubUc 
centralizTtion a iXal aXl rv' r""*!™,';,'' "'>J'-<'tion, of extreme 

Admittian Reguirementt. 

the course of rtuX of the Nor'Lli.hf'Tl'u''''oy "' "*«>>< '"dizing 
ing other regulatio.^ reLrS h^l^'"'" 2^*'"' ^?"'"' *"'' P'^«-"* 

State Board^Educ^tlonSBo«H?n' T '""~''''!' "P°" ">« 
missioners of Education a„h. if '*°"'?\'"™nference with the Corn- 
Schools, inv"tiKated the whole n* K'!'''*"*f ^'^ "' '^e various Normal 
a view to inSSg tSfcv ™h''' State Normal School, with 
ing them with the publiTschoorZf™ T:^ effectually co-ordinat- 
ough canva™ of th. " tuatlon th^ltT. R *''S %.f " *"«' » ""or- 
uniform rule, and rcKulat on for .f •^''"•'°f*^"''»''°'>«'<'Pt<'d 
in matter, of entrance r^^eLnt ^''^T^J °' N°™«' S'h™''* 
of study, and reaXmenuT^ 5 '.•*'?'" "' students, course, 
normal school SS from ff^*^"**'"? {'°V^^ ««"'" teacher,' 
eour^., and f^.m'T 'kiXlJiten'^tr^o^.'-™'" -''«" 


Minimum entrance requirements to all the Normal Schools are 
provided by the State Board of Education, though each Normal 
School is permitted to require higher qualifications. A student 
entering a California Normal School must he at least sixteen years 
of age, of good moral character, of good health, and without physi- 
cal or other defect which would impair his fitness for entering upon 
the teaching profession. Students may be admitted provisionally 
to a Normal School who have succi^ssfully completed a four years' 
course in an accredited high school of California, or the equivalent 
of such course. Teachers holding valid primary, elementary, 
kindergarten-primary, or special certificates to teach in any county 
of the State may be admitted and given such provisional under- 
graduate standing as may be determined by the faculty of the school. 
University graduates and other advanced students may be admitted 
and given provisional undergraduate standing on more favourable 
terms than the regular high school graduate. All the conditions of 
admission to such standing are fully set forth in the new standard- 
ized requirements issued by the State Board of Education in April 

To be admitted to full undergraduate standing in any Normal 
School, a student must have completed all the requirements for 
provisional undergraduate standing. In addition, he must have 
passed examinations in reading, w I ''<g, spelling, composition, 
arithmetic, geography, physiology (,i • '.iding sanitation and hy- 
giene), and United States history and civics. These examinations 
must be taken not later than sfai months after entrance' to the Nor- 
mal School, and a student who fails in any of these subjects must 
return to a regular high school or to a normal school class offering 
academic work. In order to maintain .st-.ndards of efficiency in 
these subjects, the State Board of Education, from time to time, 
adopts regulations governing such examinations. The regular nor- 
mal school course is supposed to take two years, proviiicd that stu- 
dents have selected their work wisely in the high schools. The 
State Board does not force a common preparatory course upon the 
high schools of California, but it does place a premium upon the 
early selection of the vocation of teaching and upon a careful selec- 
tion of the high school subjects that are most closely related to the 
professional need of the elementary teacher. A student who does 
not decide to become a teacher until his high school course is com- 
pleted will probably be compelled to remain in attendance at a 
Norma! School for two and one half, or three years, or perhaps longer. 
By placing the emphasis upon the common school subjects, the 
State Board of Education is endeavouring to impress upon intending 
teachers the importance of proficiency in the subjects they will bi^ 
called upon to teach. In Ontario, the Department of Education 


prescribes special preparatory courses in the high schools for stu- 
dents looking forward to teaching. Thus soon after entering the 
high school, the Ontario student must decide what course he will 
pursue: whether he will prepare for an examination entitling him 
to enter one of the teacher training schools, whether he will qualify 
for regular matriculation to the university, or whether he will take 
a commercial course preparatory to business life. The disadvant- 
age of thus being called upon to specialize so early is that the great 
majority of young people entering the high schools are quite in- 
capable of choosing their vocations. 

Admission requirements as standardized in California resemble 
closely those demanded for entrance to the Normal Schools of New 
York. In both States the regulations set forth by the State Board 
are supposed to cover the qualifications of all possible applicants. 
The presidents of the Normal Schools in both States are supposed 
to exercise certain discretionary powers in admitting candidates. 
In Missouri, entrance requirements are not prescribed by the State 
but these are established by agreement among the Normal Schools 
themselves. Missouri is thus seen to be more decentralized than 
New York, California, or Ontario. In Ontario, the Department of 
Education prescribes an examination as the entrance requirement 
for each of its training schools and no regulations are issued covering 
special cases. In no instance is the principal of the Normal School 
allowed to use his judgment in admitting a student. The Depart- 
ment of Education assumes the responsibility of judging each case 
on its merits. The methods of admitting students to Normal Schools 
in New York, Missouri, and California are fairly typical of entrance 
requirements throughout the United States. As in Misnouri, many 
Normal Schools admit candidates directly from the elementary 
schools, but ordinarily such students must take academic courses in 
the Normal School equivalent to the high school courses. Four 
years of high school work are usually required before students can 
enter upon a regular normal school course. 

Internal Organization. 

In California, the State Normal Schools are und«r the manage- 
ment and control of loca' Boards of Trustees whose duties are fully 
set forth in the St ite school law pertaining to Normal Schools. These 
duties resemble very closely the duties of Boards of Regents of 
Normal Schools in Missouri. In both States they act in harmony 
with the regulations of the State Board of Education but have 
greater power than the local Boards of New York State. Such 
local Boards, mth varying powers, are typical of normal school 
management and control throughout the United Stajtes. As has 
been noticed elsewhere, Ontario Normal Schools have no local 


Boards but are under the direct control and management of the 
Department of Education. 

One of the eight Normal Schools of California is set apart for 
the professional training of special teachers in manual arts and home 
economics. Other Normal Schools, besides preparing elementary 
teachers in the regular way, include training for special teachers in 
agriculture and manual training. In Ontario, the Department of 
Education does not offer courses in the Normal Schools for the pre- 
paration of special teachers but provision is made for such training 
in the Agricultural College, in the department of household 
science in the University of Toronto, and in summer schools. 
In New York, the regular Normal Schools prepare teachers of special 
subjects but each school is restricted to the preparation of teachers 
taking a given subject. In Missouri, the several Normal Schools 
afford training for teachers of special subjects but there is much 
duplication of work owing to the fact that several schools may be 
giving special preparation in the same subject. 

In recent years there has been an unusual demand, both in 
Ontario and the United States, for teachers of such subjects as art, 
manual training, household science, etc., and various methods have 
been devised for meeting these unusual conditions. Three princi- 
pal wajis have developed; (I) some States have established separate 
Normal Schools. The Boston Normal Art School and the State 
Manual Training Normal School of Pittsburg, Kansas, are examples. 
Most States find that such separate Normal Schools are not justified 
by the demands for special teachers. Institutions like the Pratt Insti- 
tute of Brooklyn, N. Y., the Stout Institute of Menominee, Wiscon- 
sin, and the Bradley Institute of Peoria, Illinois are not regarded 
as merely local institutions but their students are drawn from all 
parts of the United States and Canada. Many States that estab- 
lished separate Normal Schools have since found that these schools 
must be devoted to the preparation of regular teachers. (2) Other 
states have met the contingency by developing adequate facilities 
for such training in the regular Normal Schools with definite re- 
striction of the development of similar facilities in other Normal' 
Schools of the same State. Michigan furnishes an example of this 
method and, in another connection. New York has been shown to 
provide special training in this way. In general, it mav be said that 
for purposes of economy most States possessing expert centralized 
control prefer to concentrate in certain schools their facilities for 
preparing special teachers. (3) Many States permit any Normal 
School to develop facilities for giving whatever special courses it cares 
to offer. Missouri illustrates this system of maintaining the same 
special courses in different Normal Schools of the State. At War- 



rensburg, Kirksville, and Oape Girardeau, thfre are two teachers of 
drawing, two of manual training, two of home economics, and four 
of mu^iic, whose time is given to their respective special subjects. 
1 his duplication of special training in two or more Normal Schools 
of thesame State is wasteful and likely to lead to tiie preparation of 
an over supply of special teachers. 

Obviously the best policy is to develop proper facilities for the 
preparation of teachers of a given subject in one of the regular Nor- 
mal Schools of the State. This prevents the waste that is involved 
in establishing a special school as described in the first policy out- 
lined in the preceding paragraph. It also prevents the wsiste due 
to duplication and over supply if the third method is adopted. In 
Untano, kindergarten-primary teachers are prepare<l in the Toronto 
ISorma, bchool but no attempt is made in the Normal Schools to 
tram teachers of such special subjects as art, agriculture etc 
Doubtless such courses will be established when the demand for 
special teachers becomes great enough to warrant their inauKura- 
tion. " 

California is thoroughly alive to the neccssitv of having com- 
petent teachers in the Normal Schools. It is generally conceded that 
a normal school master should have experience in public school work 
and should be thoroughly conversant with the academic and profes- 
sional requirements of his State or Province. He should know thor- 
oughly the course of study, especially in relation to his own partic- 
ular subjects, and it should be his constant study to selec't materials 
and choose methods that will develop in students the power to teach 
these subjects and effectively. The strongest normal 
school master is not the one whose students imitate him slavishly, but 
rather the one whose enthusiasm and jiower of suggestion encourage 
the students to independent effort and the development of their own 
personalities. Intimate practical experience in problems of public 
schoo teaching is the best possible preparation tor the normal 
school master. The high school teacher of long experience may 
be most capable of training high sfhool teachers but he is almost 
certain to oe out of sympathy with the public school curricdlum and 
with public school methods. Paj-alkl with practical experience, and 
no less unportant, is thorough preparation of subject matter and an 
intimate knowledge of the principles of the science of education. 

Cimrses of Study. 

California has a combination of central and local control of its 
Normal Schools. The Boards of Trustees control all expenditures 
and app<jint the instructors, but the State Board of Education set- 
tles matters of entrance requirements, curriculum, and graduation 


demands. The various Normal Schools maintain academic com'ses 
as well as regular professional courses. The particular academic 
subjects that are taught depend upon the character of the courses 
mamtained in the high schools of the immediate locality. Some 
of the academic work may be taken either in a high school or in a 
Normal School, though provision is made that certain subjects 
must be completed in a high school. In any case the State pre- 
scribes certain minimum requirements for graduation from the 
regular teachers' course and requires that some of the professional 
subjects must be taken in the Normal School. 

General Requirements: — 

(A unit of work equals five recitation periods per week for at 
lea^ 36 weeks). 

(l)*Engli8h literature and language, including grammar, 

composition, and oral expression 2 units 

(2) 'Physical sciences, with emphasis upon their appli- 
cation to life, including the elements of physical 

geography, physics and chemistry l unit 

(3) Biological science, including physiology, hygiene, 

and sanitation 2 units 

(4) •History of the United States and civics, including 

local and state government l unit 

(5) World history 2 units 

(6) Drawing and painting, including applied design. . . 1 unit 

(7) Music, including sight reading, two-part singing, 

and elementary harmony i unit 

(8) Manual training or household arts, or both 1 unit 

(9) Elements of agriculture, including practical work 

in gardening, floriculture, and plant propagation . 1 unit 
(10)*Mathematics, including general mathematics or 
the applied elements of algebra, plane geometry, 

or commercial arithmetic i unit 

•must be taken in a High School. 

Professional Requirements. 

(l)*Elennents of applied sociology, including the study 
of institutions and social organizations, rural life 
and rural school problems i^ unit 

(2) 'Education, including a study of the school as an 
institution, the curriculum,and general psychology 
applied to education and general method 1 unit 


(3) •Practice teachinn and special mithods which are 
designed to familiarize the student with, and give 
him a mastery of the state series of text-books, and 
which shall in addition thereto inolude special 
methods in all of the required statutory subjects ; 
provided, that at least one unit be given to prac- 
tice teaching, and at least one-third of all prac- 
tice teaching be done in a class room under direct 
supervision 2»^ units 

(4) 'The California school system, school law, and their 

development i^ ^^^^ 

(5)*Physical education, athletics, play, school play- 
ground equipment, and indoor and outdoor rec- 
reation y ., 

(6)*Po8sible electives 6 „^jj 

Total 24 units 

•must be taken in a Normal School. 

These are the minimum requirements but each NoramI School 
may set up a higher standard if it so desires. In all the Normal 
Schools of California the regular course cove-s two years and is ar- 
ranged into a jumor and senior year, though no practice te«hing 

LfT ;i^ I..*'"' ^T' y/f- ^' '" New York, the emphasiTii 
placed upon the number of hours of actual work and not upon the 
final examinations as in Ontario. In general, the subjects ofstudy 
in the Cahforraa Normal Schools resemble closely those of Ontario 
except that more attention i.s given to sociology, rural problems, 
and practice teaching, while Ontario puts more emphisis upon 
science of education, history of education, and general methodology 
the IW ^Tf ™ "' the courses of study of Normal Schools of 
the Umted States is complicated by the fact that some institutions 

™.tL'°^"""'' *'^r,"' ™*"^f of ''*"''y; O" "nany as thirteen are 
outlined in one catalogue. This is doubtless necessary in schools 
where studenU are received at any stage from the first year of 
h^h school to the second year of college, and where courses are 
fZtl 'k *''"^^'^"' ^OTk m regular professional preparation, and 
for teachers of s^ial subjects. Most Normal Sch^ls maintain 
two-year courses for high school graduates and more recently a 
tendency has developd towards a differentiation of courses for 

iht^T "^^"^ '^,^r ^J"^]"' *''™* "f "PP" P-"'*'-'- In Ontario 
Jfr^ ™^ *T™' 'tandard course for all prospeirtive elementary 
teachers, regardless of whether they expect to te^h in the primal 

tVnL „? V ''""Th f "f"^- f"*; «.'°°K time, such a coursed 
typical of Normal Schools in the United States. Some of the work 


traming sehoois have always bee.i vocational institution " ' 

hilt S*!;?'? ""'"t'*^'' "."""'''' '" *'«' Ont"!" Normal School course 
subip^ri r " '*"''™*;' """y '^'""•"' '■•'"» ■» considerabirranK" of 

Obieniation and Practice Teaching. 

fornia Norm1i''sch™l''th'*''''- •""''■'"« "" '"^"'^"d '■> «» Cali- 

or"'[hre: ZT"^ -"''- ""hours'rw^il^'ottVprrvMe^rr 
S^h ] ., ™' "* f"""^ ^ '« required by law. Ail the Torm^l 

Tnd in „ f °''''l"^'"^ •?"'''"• ^'■''«°'« fo-- additional fa'ilit™ 

Normal Schools with which they are cimnwt^H Fn „ i ^u 

conization of these schools re^^fes Zttf ?h, ^^Sar ^Ua" 
tary schools, but there are indi- iual differences The^»?»i 

Bistinn of the seventh and e ghth (trades In tlw. 41„n fc" ■ 
Normal Sohool, a syst™ of individu^ ia;tri"tion of ."uM™";!: 
Burk^The San n''"' **": *r«"" «' »»"■ Pr-id"." D K "lert^ 

s.';32r '"'""""' ""-■ "»' "" '"■• •" »« S".2 

In the San Diego Normal School from I2n t^ isn i, 
toT60l,o'ur;T'" ''r''*^'- *^'"-'''-«' -"in a,lditi™° rT S 

p ac d upon observation and practice teaching in the prenTati'on 

^ "ur^T^.Xa st^e^?t:?r;;iniiSS 

of some 25 smgle or isolate,! lessons. Thus nCalifornil near?? 
X*'in Snfarb"^!!^ mTt '^ f^V '"'^ P-ttirworlTrt 

C.>S.^ =1T^ t^a!;^- S-J- 1^ 


thorougi,ly eoinpetcnt prfneTpal and^t^nlhJ^* fT"'*^ "• » 

t>o hold entirely r, «.>,n,ible for it« !^l^.i^ T?' • " *'"'"''* 
must be unusually v ,1 uualifipH ^A '^^"^y, <^ "t'" teachen 

be thoroughly inf<j;,„ed cor. ml ^fnQfTT ^I'-'y ''«»•'<' 
work, and shouki S. wcH v^IZf ■„ th^ ■ '■'T*".*"^ "hool 

enable them t« exeuweTrHie^ ij^ ^' 'T^""'- " «'<«"'tion to 
They must N> able to teach ^1 hiS^* '" **"■ T'"' "' methoda. 
a l««,n i»oisivelvVo i to dSu» rS^^'nT' "'TJ1^ ''^''' '" """'y'* 
teochere, and must b^ sueh ^Ta^^jTi"*' '"'^ t'^'""**'' yung 
<Menee and respec.t ofallTnteSdiiirJ^acrerr *"' '"'P''^ *'"' "»"- 

ing M^s^ur'^aTrSntaC^^r/^ T "'."S^r '*'-''- 
that of the praetice sohnnl Th 'l^""',™ '•>« Normal School with 
of securing t"hi2 e^Utbn is 7^"/""?!™* administrative method 

to tc*eh if bo"h sXYs and to'^,rerWs'^th"r'''\^"'>r' ""^t^" 
■n the practice school. The iScI on 1l*f "*'""'*•'' '"''j'^«t« 
nust be closely connected with thlwu- \^Hr Pfa"*'™ sehool 
that themethods cmpToyedTn the for^Ir '"li*"'*' ^"^"^ ««•"»' «> 
which the students .i?f teughVb ttttter TtT^'t^h''''- *''«''^ 
the norma master to nr»«ni.. .i « -I i *'," *"•' busmess of 
material of the elemeLrrschool Swe:t^r\^''T"/''''-^ the 
he >. responsible. This is'^no mean acCement ''"*' '" *'"'"'' 

of pSi'celrctli^ii^tiri^vrrf^ '^ ''■"'-^^ 

practice teaching and informft nn .n^ • "P?'**""" governing 
practice schooL S hanTb^t ,h m""* *^-^ """"^ °f *»>* 
the preparation of iXon SfcnH » •""*,"" ^■•''etions fbr 

essential points in thT^rohnHe "f tl u "'! f°™."'»tion of the 
teachers !md stu,len^-i^trSn.r Ln, u "? *" "'"''^^ ^*^ ""*«■ 


accori^cr^itftat^^XedreXr- ""-^ *^-''''* '" 
2. A meeting place for theory and practice 

fiiammntton* and Certification. 

m a high school toKeth,.r wUh J,li.lT ' **""''. ■""" *•" t'lk'^n 
high school prii.,h,al, 2) thi .,S » "''"™m«n'lation8 from the 
. jchool course whleli co4„ two v31r.h"' '']'•.'»'''*«»'". normal 
four units of work, at least fiftinnf Lw k'' »"«"!«"■"' «f twei.ty- 
m a se. ndary sch,;,!. Each Normal sThnnl ("""fV^^" l"™" taken 
higher standards for graduation ?h„„^?' ''''' '''^''''ty t" demand 
State Board. There arfnnfi„„? •" ^^"^^ authorize.! by (he 

Schools of Calfforl^lS? '"eldiXIrf '" T "' '^" ''"™«' 
each student, and, to ;eceive a dTntmy.h*^ faculty reports upon 
to a we«.definid standard NormaT sc 1T r f*" ■"""* ™"f°™ 
^7 »»'%B'»>,fd of Trustees of each sohool^n tT '"'*' """ >^,'^"^ 
of the faculty. The diolnma il L. ?■ ' " ""■ fPcommendatiDn 
its presentation, axiy cSun°v sui^rin"! T? ■*" "■"'=''; I'"* "Pon 
a certificate of a imhT J^2^ '"P«"ntendent is obliged to itrant 

thatis,kindergar''teretm™n7Sy^Srs"p'lc*'al."'^' '""'^ "' '""'"'»"' 

Educa;b„,''etmeM.^;':*'1ri^X:ner"''"' ''■^- '^^— tyBo.:,;, of 
ary, and high school, eJch r™uX a "^ ?T' /PI!""'' t"-''"""''- 
No elementary, spei^ial orTpH^*; <'olar fee before issuance, 

for more thaTtwo'^rea;, unfe^ tl^e eZ .^7V''?'^'■''» ''« S^'nted 
year s successful teaching expSieSce"h^\'"*''u'" ^"^' """ 
requisite experience, all certfSs' .i-.n. *•""''"" ^^ *""' ">'» 
yahd for six years and mav be rlZ P r "' ,C'-P"n'i''«'y, are 
Bfiued to elementaryTeac^re bv thn r ; ^ '"'•"B™tes may be 
upon credentials such ^ o^her r^liP"""''*' ^"^I"^ "' Kducition 
from California State N^rma sTho^? StZ T}''^-'"'^- '*'P'"">«« 
diplomas issued by institutions fnnn^' ^***t: '''"''"'"^^ »"'' Normal 
pared by the State Bo^d„/Ti °l ^^^ «'^"<"«t<-d lists pre- 
certificates may abo be Z^ed bv fhe P *""?• E''''n™tary school 
to candidates 4o succ^^n pCi^l£mf„*^,-^"'^'' "^ Education 
subjects,-reading, English „a^m^r"*'9'>s "> the following 
ture,. orthopHphv, penmiShb drw"'"'"'™; ^"^^ "ter^ 
keeping, aritUc tic, a£X.Se^lm*^' ''''™' ■""«'«■ ^ook- 
Phy..., physio,,^ an'§h';^ete^rTrdVl^^^^^^^ 


li^^/^^^' j''''*}"y (ancient, medUevaJ, and modem), whool 
Uw and methodH of teaching. Candidate, for these examn^tioM 
must pre«.nt evidenee that they have completed 7fourTearh°ih 
Bchoo cour*. or iU univalent, or «how that they have ha" f *r 
»mewh«rdrff ,'*"f*''«,^'^-rience The«. exLi^tion, vZ 

h? mattert ?f d ^.l^ n""",?**.'."* '«"■^™".°ty » » l«w unto it»elf 
i" ?•?"•" of detail. Usually the exuinlnations occur in December 

The MdVof nne"'"?1l" """ '^''"'^ '■" ^"^ " '•» "' "^oaXZ 
ine nmner of one of these certificates w ent tied to teach in «nv 
elementary school of the county. The County Board o^^E.lucati»n 

noTu^S!!'. exl'i'^f """TT "•'«fi™t«' "Pon credenlfals „„;" 
not upon examinations. Such certificates entitle the holder to 

tZt C X";^'? Irr ""''.• "■«'" ™'*"" conditions "^U? 
!I^ W„. •*'* *''*' T^ '* «™Kn'«e(l are,-other California 

kindergarten-primary certificates, diplomas froii the kinderiarten 

& S^"/r"L" ""^'r ^*''*^. '*"'"»' School, and dlKa^ 
from kindergarten schools on the accredited lUt of the State 
Boar.l. Special certificate, of elementary or seeondarv grade mav 
be issued by County Boards of Education to holder of mTn^ak 
.«ued or prescribed by the State Board of Erhcation S^'h 
certificates are granted to teach manual and fine arts vocal and 

h^nT'""l'''K"?"r' F'P''"''' ™"""'- apieultur^ commerce 
branch™, technical and househol.l arts. Teachers reeeiving these 
certificates are not authorize.l to take charge Jre^lar sehoo™ 

cer^fie;;r^ "^^ l^^^"'^ "^^P* *•"> «•""' »lH^ifio«lly named i" "he 
CnnntvB"- J'-<''"5,'?''0' . elementary certificates are issued Ir^ 
sT^I^. °*I^''''' E<lucat.onto students of California State Norm^ 
Schools; preliminary secondary certificates to graduate stud^ts 
of any umversity accredited by the State Bowd of Education 

S whenTll *'T"? ■"""" -fWi-hed under the laws^of the 
aitho'riries nf h'"'*' »*'"t^"t».P'-<-^''nt recommendations from the 
authorities of their respective institut ons that such certificates he 

Sut oav''Tn?.'^'''''*T""*'^ '''', •'o'''™ t» do eadeiteaehing 
The&to re<i,l^'rT tKs^V'""''''' ^^rion^ while acting 
as neipers to regular to-hers. Temporary certificates mav ht 
wsued by a county superintendent to'^rso^s holding cerXates 
granted by County Boards of Education iVCalifornia; to^p^rsons who 

"dd'^vaUdrertl™ '-*'?• ""r"' »!''"»'"• " univer^itieranS who 
;,?HiJ certificates issued outside of California, when in the 

n S t^ ce^HfiT*^ superintendent such certificates co?r4pond 

EdfcatL A tm^L*'"''' SY '"' ^"^ ^y <^°"°*y Boards of 
aaucation. All ^mporary certificates must expire on the Julv 
first or January first following the date of issuance. No t>er«n 
IS entitled to receive a temporary certificate more Tan onceKe 


authority. Tl„ f.'?m,.r nrZrih^s ;""■'""''« .'"'tral «nd local 

ant) umltT d-rtain nrrumstancps 'm.lmfM . > ■■'•r"h'at.-«, 

Ontario, N,.w Yorl( ami Mi™ni^i , ^ . •« "'." """an"""*'"™. In 
central iuthoritifH M""""". "" •'.■r. .firat,.« aro i«„„.,l by tho 

proved by th,. St,,... n,«,r.l. 'H,/ laU," h, If f ' h'' "" '"'; 
KraHuato work m,i^ i„. d.vof,..! to a, T» » \i' /i"' T"' "' 
we l-oquipp..l s..|,o.;i. of J;.onH.n Kra i ,lfn",.;n'' ?StIrv "^ 'l 
8ciio<il or (,| ler couivalpnt in.ti..,.i "'"•''".".v a State Normal 

college or universitv lienartmT* 7 i • P"^P'"'''tion in a 
Normal SchooT',? someTat?s,ill ", r '■''"^''»'°"- Thougl. the 
and other States have nnl„»L.' ' '"P"^'' »™on'l"rv teachers, 

graduates f>l teaSg"i„'^h*^^L"'rhol''''ifr "T""'' "''?,''' 
recoRoized that the ^^,rLl School»hav„L ''■'"'; """•'•■al'y 

for the preparation o c" rlX^ ^eX^ T^"''''' ^' ""^ 
tions for the purely profSsiW tr»1ni„ r^*"* T""' "'"'»"- 
are the departments of eduTS *'""'°B,.of secondary teachers 
and unive?sitie L hi btrDoiXT^ 'r*'*t ""•">' '""''«'« 
method of preparation UstmewS" decent 'in tt^ l" *''' 
throughout the United States I7i „„ii . . '® '""•' '^e'e 

fuch Separtment^rtheir numb J is'^fe «'1„^ ""'^>'^-«'- 
18 a wide-spread determinate to ™^H, '","''?«"««, and there 
all seconda^ teachers3rtoVarp;;;.ttrrali/o;^r "' 

Mioocopv nsoumoH mi chakt 




SS%i '6^-! Eoit Main Streei 

BVS Roch»3ler. N«. York U609 USA 

^ (716) *BZ- 0300- Phon, ^ 

^S (716) 2aS - 59S9 • Fa> 


The theoretical work given by these departments is very 
comprehensive, including general psychology, educational psy- 
chology, genetic psychology, psychology of adolescence, principles 
of education, philosophy of education, history of education, school 
administration and management, foreign school systems, school 
hygiene, sociology, and special study of the subjects that the 
students expect to teach, as well as special methods of teaching 
tliesc subjects. The practical professional training varies greatly 
in different institutions. In some instances the practical part is 
mainly observational as in the old School of Pedagogy in Ontario. 
In others, both observation and practice teaching are used effectively 
in preparing the prospective teacher. Some institutions such as 
Columbia University and the University of Chicago maintain 
their own secondary schools for purposes of observation and 
practice teaching. Perhaps Brown University has developed more 
scientifically and successfully the practical phase of the professional 
preparation of the secondary teacher than any other school of 
education in the United States. 

In recent years the problems of secondary education in the 
United States have received much consideration and investigation. 
It has been discovered that the greatest weakness of these schools 
i.s due to lack of proper training of their teachers. The California 
plan may be said to be typical of a movement to provide for the 
adequate preparation of all such teachers. The most important 
recommendations looking towards standardization of qualifications 
of secondary teachers may be summarized as follows:— 

1. Four years of high school work, followed by four years' 
work in a college or university. 

2. Some preparatory professional subjects during the last year 
or two of undergraduate work such as, history of education edu- 
cational psychology, principles of education. 

3. Special preparation, both before and after graduation of 
one or more subjects to give the candidate sufficient scholarship 
to teach these subjects successfully. 

4. General preparation of other academic subjects to give a 
broad outlook upon other departments of scholarship and upon life. 

5. One year of graduate study devoted to special academic 
work, theoretical training, but with most emphasis placed upon 
supervised observation and practice teaching under conditions 
approximating as nearly as possible those to be met with later in 
actual experience. 



Prbpakation of Rural Teachers in the United States. 

There is a wide-spread movement throughout the I'nited 
State.s for greater eentralization of iidministrativc control in all 
matters of edueation. The tendeney is to estahli-fh State Boards 
of tdueation or to give larger powers to those already in e.xi.stenee; 
to abandon the local district (section) unit for cither the township 
or the county system; and to establish some form of consolidation 
to replace the one-teaclier schools. There is a fi'irly general 
agreement that the prevailing sv.stem of rural education' must be 
reorganized and readjusted to provide carefully graded elementary 
schools for all country children, and sufficient rural high schools 
adapted to the needs of each rural communitv. Merelv an en- 
larged curriculum will not meet the needs; rural conditions must 
be scientifically studied in or<lei- that the opportunity may be 
given to the country child to interpret life in terms of his "own 
environment. Educational leaders are convinced that the time 
has come.when both urban and rural communities must each have 
Its distinct type of school. In the United States, as in Ontario, 
towns and cities have grown rapidly and urban education has 
advance<l in proportion; rural edueation has progressed slowly 
or has been retarded because the best country teachers have been 
attracted to city positions. 

Many factors enter into the problem of remaking the rural 
schools, but none is more important than the proper preparation 
of the teacher. Rural districts require trained leadership and 
this can never be realized until teachers of vision and power establish 
themselves permanently in communities needing their services. 
Some educators still maintain that all teachers should receive 
a reasonably good academic and profes,sional preparation and that 
there should be no necessity for giving special training to any one 
type of teacher. True, the great principles of educational science 
we applicable to both urban and rural education, but the prospective 
rural teacher should receive definite training in elementary agricul- 
ture, domestic arts, rural economics, rural sociologv, rural school 
administration and management, and in various other matters 
pertaimng to country life. 

• Jiivestigation shows that the present status of the rural teacher 
\n.« f United States is far from satisfactory. For example, in 
1915 four per cent, of the country teachers had not completed the 
eight grades of the elementary schools. This is accounted for by 
the fact that in some States there is no academic standard of require^ 
meat except ability to pass an examination before a local county 


?i^r '^ i;!,,-^'- ^- -^ ■« »hown in t.,.. North CVnt.a. 

intlH.S,n,flKV.,4mlSor«r.n:r9 '' «'?'•»« "■'•"■■'I is shown 
'■.""'•1 not p„.,H tho ()ntarir]ul; Hfj''V;''"Vi^'''''"'™'t''»''h.'rB 
t'on. This is <.,.nfirm< ,1 V f h^ / ,, '« ' ■^<;''""' Kntranre .xamina- 
th.s,. fathers "I sn^' / ? i!" /l'"'!"'''* '''«'•■■ "Tittcn by ono f 
a ''hil-l 10 yoars olX'e m L™:" 't,,'" ^,'"'V' ?"""/ •"'■'"»' "h™ 
.voars ol.l. This i„ ,n I av 1 1 '^'"'.^f.*- "t"'" I was 19^ 
th- mail." (,3: 22 It is e " .rf;" ,*f '"«, " ™'-«- »»'^""Rh 
'■'■nt. of th<. rural teachers hL , I * "", ""'^ "''""* 4.5 per 

-■ours,., hut tlicnl^^a ions of r, "'"."'■"■" "/"'"-.V".r hiRh school<.ation of t,.a,.h,' arTu,"atT;t.n.fr1"f"'" ''•"•■'""« "•'"' "•^- 
cours,. will soon he required of ■,' I ^*""''«"1 f'-ur-yrar high school 
States. nquireu ot all teachers throughout the United 

E<iu4"tiot;<.p?;ts7haf32Tpr;.™t'rr''''''u''"; ""- """""' -^ 

no such training whattterTllvf™ «.'''';*'''■"' ''"^'''■'■"Ved 
position in this'^esp.^t lr„;.e 2nl^. 22o ;"' ^'"'^ f ' '" ""' '"■«* 
have not heen prof,*siona% prepared Th '''x^\"J^^'" ♦'""•'"■'» 
come next with 24.5 per eenrSlo-1 *i a ^I"'**' f™trai States 
South Central Stat.t show Sn fi n I *'«: S""'' Atlantic and the 
pcftively. (13- 9,5) in Lf • ^'^ ''''"*• ''"'' 42-9 per cent, res- 

teachers^,olVl temporary erX'at"e':''' 't'f "7 '^"'"' "^ ""e rural 
all but 13 per cent nf fiT , '^'i"'"™*''*'. while statistics show that 
prof,.ssiona% trained " "'™™t»^y teachers of the Province are 

para«;:5;tw'^itTtrr„it''Vr'/''''^^- '^ '^ ™">- organizations Xt'untrtMis'woS •1'^^'' "« *"-<' 
The State Normal Schools. 
The County Training Schools. 
The regular High Schools. 

but ?^esTa'r'e''usui?[rfoi"tedal"7\°''''' 'i''"-^ '- »---- 
principals of consolidated seC ^^"^'"'r^of agriculture or fo; 
teachers. ^"°«o"«ated schools rather than for regular rural 

Course, for Rural Teachers in State Normal Schools 

the teacwSri^S^ri Itt'le"':^' '"77"''''' *" "^ constituency, 

Sreat majority of theg,aKte"rhrS;sTht7s!:oi:«^ 


sohcis t<, off..r .•.,1." ™ p .„ ; ;" ™,::'"r''"' ^'^ *'"• ^'""""' 

In oacl, State wlicr.. th. ,. ,,tr^j '''' ' V^^ f""' ""■■•'I (■<)mmii,uti,.«. 
study for the .X'montar ■ ■! ,,^1 ','*'"v"-'' "r'T"'"''^ « '^^•""•«' of 

found in th,. Sfat.vs oMVashin^to? Vi ■ "'"■'', r;'"'"''^ '"'" «" '>" 

80 per cent, of th,- gi^Ss ^^ th / i^ ^I'Sl ^Sat iir'' 
<-'<'oma, ariM'mn nvf.rl in .,iM .. *^oriiiai ornool at Athens, 

fourth ;ear ZTAlnZZurT''' "'•''""'•^- """"8 t''"'^ 
of rural »oeiol,,gvThic h s rc^vi ler;,:';'/' "''' "'"''^ *."•"'" •^*"''y 
intending teachers in rural ennt '' P'"''"'"'' "' i»t<'n«ting 

community lea es \lueh ■ en ,„"• ' ",' ""^* """>■ "■'" '»'™™e 
of naturafresou <vs, !,om !m* ki "e .rti'.,'; .T "'''"' '" ""^'"'^^^i"^ 
»-h<>ol gardening, a^i""tur"m,n,'^tr. •'""''?'. """"''■ "^"''y' 
games, and physiraleuiuirc ""'"'^' ""'''""■■ P'''^'^ ""<' 

the Illinois Stat^ N ™al S hoolll NorT ^'^'ir'^l'f Mi''"K»n- in 
Schools, and in five of the W?i ^V>°"?'''' '",*•''■ ^Usnuri Normal 
course is given i^ ttwe^cT ^'TT '^^•''""'«- Atypical 
r-:ichigan. ^Thl Ts a four ' "' "' Kalamazoo, 

(fraduftion from tt ' igth -yraderfTm d""'"?^ for admission,' 
work done durimr th» ,k '" <l<™<'ntary schoo . The 

school coursiXt the Wtlvrar^'r? TI'"','^ '^' """"''^y '"'«'> 
professional ^ork, spec a a tentbn iITJ"' "'"f * '"'^'"^iviy to 

model rural school maLtained nn Z * "V '?"""'' "° '" th" 
which.hiMren are ^a^rtld^rt "rlrturLr^^ 

schoo°s"L''manv''S Norll""!''/", P™*^''*'^'' *^«''h'^'« "f rural 
at Valley CitrrAh^StrSJiniS-r ^TtlS . 


roHponsible for' this work „ " ,, " ' , .'i'"'''''"™- The instructor' 
emmcntly qualifi.,1 f„r ICrZ-Z L'"'^^ ^^T^'''^ "'ho are 
penence. Th,. ago renuir.m. , ?' ".'•''olarship and ex- 

Kra,l„ati„n from the olem,., i r • "^hoT St '•"■/-'"ivalent of 
th< course receive a second er ,le e.rHfi » ^''''''^.ts completing 
of he State. The State Normal sZ if i' ™'"^ "' ""^ '•<'"n*"V 
a similar cmrse for rural tea ™ r Stu h^t T'"?' '''"^■='. «ff"r« 
RTade of the puhli,. schools ami „r' •"■■ f™™ the ninth 

cl.«.;entary subjects witM^tru ion n''rt"h'r '7^^ of the usual 
Professional work is given ine ,1 n^ . ""^*ho(ls of teaching them. 
,it« relation to the communitv \1 * ' "*",''•'' "' the rural school in 
to rural ?chools;aSre's,rTl:T'' •'"''"*'"/'' '"•'' "''"Pt ." 
Observation is arranged for , \^" ''',"'"«' ,"'"' ""ture .stli.iy. 
practice teaching is also require"." ''"' "'™' '""'"'"' '" which 

forZit^:^^ :riC'vL^^fs^^^^^^^^^ '% -"»• ■" t^o state 
for rural teachers, 15 per °"nt offer 'n'-'T ''"*'"''* departments 
equipped with separate'^departm 1 a 'n ''""f'^'^'though not 
m some subjects for rural teachers LmM^'^"' '■™*- "'^'i'' instruction 
provision for rural schools whatever PnM '^'.n'""* '""^'^ "« «P''"al 
Normal Schools are equipped tT^iv-'^.^"^?'' '=™t- of the State 
Some schools hav.. largTfa?ms fevoted ^Vv'*'"" ,'" "p-i-^u'ture. 
make use of portions of the Sol eronnlf *•"" '^'"'''' "'*'"« others 
The rural school dcpartm^mts^f* ^'"",''''P''"'"™tal purposes 
valuable service to the^Tnltit° enHes'th^ these schools r'enJS 
We conferences, and rural sun-^v h'sid''"^'' •'"*' '""^' ™'*' 
these communities. 8U"<.vs, besides preparing teachers for 

vatiol^nd^Sf;'-"^^^^^^^^^^^^ -hools for o,,..- 

The first is a single ungraded room „ '""''', "'''' '" operation, 
school, an exampll, of whTch i, t?,T f * ^^"?/ ''°™»' Practice 
The room resembles a coun rv .eh,> ,""'' f ^'"°"''' Minnesota. 
I'ut in reality it is an art.S orin '? '''»^'°K «" the grades, 
typical rural school. The vo un/T f'"" ""'' ^y "o means a 
room may receive vnl„«Ki ^°""K. teacher practising in such a 

of a schLl P?<S-amZ aJT*:r'•7^^'■•'*'"«'''<^-'^^^^^^^^ 
cannot derive ^perieweTn the n"!"""^'"*'™ ?' P^Pi'^ but he 
school, nor can he learn how to adi^r*?*""'??* "^ " '•™' country 
the needs of a rural commiTnHv Th '•'« objects of study to meet 
room school, built on S" normal T h T"'"^ " "" »nf5raded one- 
a rural school maintained U. u^lt,'?T' '^'"P"?.- ^his again is 
■unta m_ unnatural surroundings. ICirLville, 

Missouri, has aiii.i. „ i 


. may be m„flifi.„j I "" 'Urricu urn an,) m/.i i """* main 


students tdt- h''"^' "f -^ S te^^hlr to f""" ?<""«''« «™d 
where the seht.-"" -f""'" '"' *verai w«t V th"' '"'""'' ""d 
secured nea^ t^' 3 1^^ "l«d- . Sonetimes tottt br'"""'*^ 


School. This and iiunicrous other ohjpctions make the phin 
. iniipphiiible to conditiong in Ontario. The seheme of using aetiini 
rural schools for practice purposes seems to afford the most natural 
and effectivi' means of nivinR experience to would-he rural teaehi^rs 
hu<'li rural schools should he thorounhly equipped, in charge of 
competent teachers, and easily accessible by train, trolley car (jr 
motor bus. " ' * 

County Training Schools for Rural Teachers. 

Wi.sconsin has evolved a unique system of Coimty Training 
.Schools for the preparation of rural teachers. In 1899 the State 
legislature authorizc<l the establishment of one of schools 
in any county in which a State Normal School was not located 
but at hrst, liinite<l the number of schools to two. From tim(' 
to time the l.iw lia-s been changed to permit the opening of additionil 
training sciiools until at prewnt thirty-three are authorized 
although only thirty have been established. A county dfsirii.g 
to have one of the.fe local Normal Schools must get th- consent 
of the people by popular vote and then make application to the 
State Department of Education for its approval. The County 
Board of Education is authorizi :l to provide money for the organi- 
zation, equipment, and maintenance of the school. It i.s controlled 
by a .so-called County Training School Board consisting of three 
members, one of whom is the county superintendent, the other 
two being appointed by the County Board of Education. The 
county provides the plant and pays one-third of the cost of main- 
tenance, the State paying the other two-thirda. Special appropria- 
tions are made to schools that offer regular courses in domestic 
science on condition that qualified teachers are engaged for this 
work. (16: 9.) Wisconsin is the only state in the Union that 
providi'S genuine County Training Schools, separate in every 
respect from the public high schools. 

The success or failure of such institutions depends almost 
entirely upon the teachers, hence special care has always been 
exercised in filling the positions of principals and assistants with 
men and women of scholarship and experience, who possess sym- 
pathetic knowledge of rural conditions. Practicallj all the p'rin- 
cipals of these schools have been born and brought up in the country 
have attended and taught in rural schools, and after graduation 
trom college, have taught in high schools for a number of years. 
Doubtless this preparation insures the securing of principals of 
mature years who command the respect of tlie community; but 
It IS a well-established fact that men who t«ach for years in high 
schools, after taking purely academic college courses, are almost 
certain to lose interest in rural conditions and become unsym- 

tl.o Ontario AVi.ultu „ 'ollej:'";^™ I,™'.':; »" •'"'\'.'«i"-"' '"^ 

ex|.c.ri,.n,r an a,sHistant'» doh ti on n nn / '"'' "'•'' '"«'' '"•''""I 

for a fow joar, and t ho ?,'™ woul.r,'; "' ".'-«■•■•"•"-« school. 

County Training ,Soh.«,l ' "" "'*'"' P"'"-'Pal for a 

work'^ir'tr h™:';!;:!;^":!,^:: j'""^jho:"« -n <TPi-tion of ,h., 

oxtonilH over two vcJs l.nJ 1 '^'■'"' "'"''''nts th.> course 

school., may 'omp\' ^it in fn ^'^"'Ti ''''' «™'''"J"'" "^ ''i^l^ 
propos,.,! I.y th,. ,,,,,1 au hor t J mi J ' ''"'J-" n "^ "♦"''>■ '"•'' 
a I tho training »ch,,,,irs n"o .wh r, .If P™'"'" ">' ""iform for 

tho State Sup-TintenclcntNoauLnttrrT *''" '7"'"'^«' "' 
in high school .subjects but n^ich th,P • f * '' '!' K'^"*" instruction 
an.l professional p ,.parat"on if th, ^^ '''■"'*'-'<" "'" '"•a.l.mic 
school with,,l r^S^ec to iu ZTT""" "' ""' "'""'■"t-iry 
Nature 8tu,lv, agri "ultur" ami flrZ' • ''*'"^ '" '""'^ '">mlit\„J. 
consideration sfhllmanalmentf ''■,",''''"'••' "'•»■'"<' ™roful 
ment and use of a"L"ol"S Lm'r«^ "oTth"'' ""•.»"""«"- 
eac!, school, the students b,.ini pr™are,T in fh '■'"•"™''"n of 
local conditions. (16: 17) ObservS '"Z'"''"' .«ul>Jccts for 
are provided for und,.; c'jse sV.nervT; ?-"''■ P™''*"'' teaching 
successful practic.. tlchiC fo7 wen V w r'' T'T'''"* """^t ,1,? 
being held during which criticisms I T'''''' '' •''^' ™>>f''-"ic<.s 
Seven schools have pra tic, den^r?^ T- *'"««'■»*'""« arc made. 

-00. provide for '>^:^^::'i:'^i^^,^^- ^,-:^ 


three.years in td ZZ Xr'ethT^niL'':'i''^?'^ "•""'' ^"^ 
The inexperenced m-arlnnf,. , .'^"'' 'faming school is situated. 

year fr.^m'lhe date of^ste"''ASonevt.rf'^™''' /t"" '"^ ""^ 
he county superintendent mat skn th !"« "'"'f"' ''^P'-'"™«<'. 
it valid for an additionalncHod n7*„ " '^«''t'fiS?t« th"^ making 
that the holder of a certifiS fr„r^ « ^"f"^' Provision is madf 
one^ year's successf uf c^SceT eert'!fi"^,^K ™'"'°« ^'■'">°'' ^^'<^' 
tendent, may, upon the comDietion n „ f''^ " ™"".'y '"P-^""- 


teache^' fo^XCHf n.r«r ,«« T*l ''^«t"«<"« '« »« prepare 
developed which aXly™cJt:S.' "^AJ:^^^ 


rural tea-'hrr, «n,l o?l„.r ■• ,m minitvTl ''"' """"""V""" *" 

an.) HrcularH. TruinhiK „'lZ »^! .1,, r ' •"•T'".'*'' '■"nf<T''n.M.K 

pr..l.l..m«. nii: 33). """"r" «n<l „th.rv intwstrd in rural 

Thi' final tent of any Hchcmo of iirr.niiri..» *, „ i • ^i 
or failure of tho«. whom it rains nf nrT * t''*.'''"'" '" -h" mccen 
It is ,.|Him,.,l for tl,,. Z luat Tof t w' w7 "" '"*? ''^*!'"' ""^''■'■• 
that, -nr,. th.y hav,. 1.,'"^ toUK ht .^„ h"''" '':'"'"« ''•'"'"''' 
hwn trainiMl ,y m..n an" w m^„ i '' " """ '''""'t'-y an.l have 

favourably wi ,. oth( r traehcrs. " toaihrrs compare 

resou'le^fulmt S^ t^iXt"" ;„T n^r '" 'r^'^l'-' 
roori.! ♦ • » «„„ t ,,""'^""™''. anrt nnatnesg of schoo 

Cm work an,i aUoT^lot " ""' "'"' --'-'-"y - "PP- 

orKanize the school. They hav"T fouLlH*^ "Ik"'."?'"'' """^ 

better'^or^Li L! ^Th^v'alXtrre""*^?; '/''=• K '^"'"'^ -"" '" 
do more social eentre work" P'^P^-td fc busy work and 

"They organize the school wit'' less delav Th„„ i, 

z;x:!j'^:i^ :n^^s^tif ^:r^^^ 

att.tude toward the country, its ^fci^i'^u'd eJo'SmiTrobl^^il^^ 

msti;!;t;t^:i;;?:i:ict:hrL:™"'"--''-' - - 


=3.;;:^r-::- -„:;;,, «- 

«n,i ,,..,„.,,;;;;:;-;; ;:„:; ,!-,^;-;/'-i.; - u, „.,, ,„, ,^ 

owr. .n„n..,li„,„ vi^nitv!. "'''" *" '"'"1" "" «.,rk .„ ,|,c .,,.,.'1;.,, Z 

fi" -.''-1 i:;",'';;s^,,i;^"; ";' - -v- -...ri,,,..,,,,,, ;„ ,.„ 
'■>• '"'•-•ion ,0 .h..a,;ii;':;^:^;:j'!^'''™"'ni,M,vr:;;:: 

9 Ti . . * '"'" "'■■'■'"'v M.I, .v.,niii.,.,l 

t" a,l«,.^ „n..s,.|f to ,l,re,rm ';'''''"■■ "^ '''".'I-., mul «,,i,i,t 
of ;V..s,.„„«i, ,,„„,,, ,,., ^« » ^f„* ',"V'7'-f-l. Tl». rural s.hS 
of 'h,. county training sc}w\ihl[r.'--'!'*"''''^ '' «" «♦'■''' "tH 
work in a (rural) high schnnlLV 1 '"'"■"'' *" ''a^'' '""r v.ars' 
sional training. * '^^"l P"'"" ^ ..ntranr,. ui.on ti,, ir prl.fos- 

fa.;!ory"r.lS;/,.^/;/;;^'™^^^^^ -'l-ul,! .„. ™ffi„iont if ™ti,. 

valid or t«o y,ar's ,^Mh"it"fr''''\ ^" '"♦•■'in. o.: ,fi"aTo 
oxt.n,l.,l to fiv,. .v,„, 22 ,, fi^l , '' f™<l>"'t.« and this n,ig" I 

surcosfully for two vcars c- I, I. '\I,""'"'« «•"' hav, tauei.t 

at Pr.«.nt, county frai±l ".**"; ^^"'''■- A" ™.'stitu e^ 
agamst the rural^in™ ro-^n^t- ■'' •""" *" '""'rimi^te 
fixation. The rural school ,f th,. /' w"!'"., '" """'<' f"r life certi: 
efficient as the urban sel , Ji^?""' '^'"t's will never be as 

d.mandedofthelat?,rar. ,is:,H *'' »';^*'t«"'lard8 of cert ficat " 
"lay be specially trafned ft /h ^"t,"' "' *'«' f"™cr. Teachers 
rural eonimuniticB, hit o "„*'': /[r^'^V'^™'"! schools a„d 
of rural teachere, junt so ling'^wm ZTr '''!'"'■"''? ""^^ "l^i^ed 
-c. the schools unsatisfactory.^ Ttl^^I.^-tt t L'.Sn* 

•"••.V r,.quir..,l high-.r nnml-rnkMuB"'", •'''''' «»"<■ ParuHHs, hut 
W'vi' a rniKl, Hhort.T "oi«,^ 'l"«l"fi™tion8 for mlmission ami 
Ontario, „o t.m.h.r" all,^r T ..Ll!"'^?"""'' P'-PTation. ?„ 
without „t l,.»,t th,. <.qu?v, I .,t of , t^' '"' " ':."••*"■'•''' '•■ rtifi..ato 
Th.. local training xcS» Xk. '"'.t^™'' high school coi rs- 
»P«'.ficall.v for rural h^„o " I„ k"";™^* , »" '™i" f^^ho h 
'wn giv^n f„r improv nTtho nrJ^T" H ""KK'^tion. have 
for country school,, * Prepnration nf Ontario t.achcrs 

Preparation of Rural Teacher, in Regular Hi,k ScHooU. 

. In chapters IV and V h.-: i i 
'raininK curses in the hieh Z^LLIT"" ,^"'' ■"'«''' '" the 
for the preparation of rural teachers -^u"'" J?'!' ""'' ^'^"^^^ 
to supp y all the elementary S,o,s J*l ?/"•'"«. "' "">'=''«'" 
proven too large a problem fn^H, w """, ^°''f'^ States has 
natural result that the ru Jj have 5,^(1^°!;'"''' ^'■'«»'«. "'i'h the 
Hchools. Many States? f^fi'Cn,;"?^™^ ■»<"<■ than the urban 
their rural schools in the hanK untr^fn r.'*'"''?*'*'^ "f »"'^ing 
?hf, I, during the last twenty yea^T •'™"''''"' ''"^'^ •'«*«'^ 
high schools. Fullv twentv Sf„* •* .' training courses in their 
^onal pn.par«tion of iX ling ru mufaT^ ^""^ P™^^ 

with or as an int,.gral par of the?r . r'' ""j" '" ™nmction 
New York, Mieniean \Vin„ / -ir '^'^ondary schools. 07- QSI 
classes "rginlll^/r ";p\' aT dt^rS"' h^'V' "^^'o •>-<■ training 
connected with the public high scS' ''"* """"^ °'- '<■«« '^^'<«cly 
building and (quipment are n,eH f '' '""^mnch as the same 
and for traini^ ~s. Arkl^^' i^i"]".^*'' ""'°'" "^^ 
Missouri, Nebraska, Oregon, Vi?S r^J^v^""'^' Maryland, 
mgcoursesaspartoftheusual wShLnK 1 ^^r?n«in have train- 
.the strictly professional work „ X™ °° 7.!"*' '"^^'''K all except 
instructors. ""' '° "''a'^e of the regular high school 


with instruction" n te^h °i **>; ^■'^"'Sly lel^oST; '""'"''^ 
strictly professional su& jf ^'^'^^Jng V^sLfJ^'"^^'' 


prepared by the State Department of Edueation. Provision is 
made for renewing these certificates from time tc time and liberal 
allowances are granted to holders in the State Normal Schools. 
During the si'hool year 1911-12 there were 90 such classes with 
1,300 students, 1,156 of whom were graduated, receiving State 
certificates, valid in the rural schools of the State. At the present 
time there arc training classes in 112 high schools and approxi- 
mately 6,000 graduates teaching in the rural schools of the State. 

The training departments in the high schools of Minnesota 
are under the direction of the State High School Board. These 
departments were established in 1905, because practically all 
graduates of tlie Normal Schools were being emploved in urban 
centres. Minnesota requires about 9,000 teachers' for its one- 
teacher schools, and less than 25 percent, of those now in service 
have any professional training whatever. (15:4.3). The lack 
of this professional preparation is due to the fact that teachers 
are granted certificates to teach in rural schools upon passing an 
aeadt-mie examination. Though there are more than one hundred 
training departments in high schools, each receiving an annual 
grant of »1,000 from the State, the total number of students en- 
rolled is comparatively small because graduates have to compete 
with urf rained teachers holding legal certificates. At present 
no lixed admission requirements are demanded, though in practice 
. students are supposed to have completed at least two years of high 
school work. The training class in each school is in charge of a 
special instructor holding a certificate granted by the State Super- 
intendent because of suitable txperience and peculiar fitness for 
this work. Each instructor must receive a minimuui salary of 
$750 per annum and the enrolment in his department must jiot 
exceed twenty students. The course of study includes American 
history, arithmetic, civil government, grammar, geography, litera- 
ture, reading, and writing. These subjects are studied profession- 
ally during a year of nine months, special r?ference being given to 
methods of teaching. One-fourth of the students' time must be 
devoted to practice teaching, much of which is done in rural schools. 
Mere observation is regarded as having little value and students 
are encouraged to render assistance to regular teachers in cloak- 
room supervision, hall duty, correction of exercises, oversight of 
seat work, tutoring backward pupils, and instructing sections of 
a grade. Graduates who have completed two years of high school 
work receive Second grade certificates, while those who have three 
years of high school work receive First grade certificates. The 
former is valid for one and the latter for two years in rural and 
semi-graded schools. (14: 42). 


life. Hecentlv the State Dem tm ent nf r.Vh '' T''''™' "^ ?"' 
energetic rural-life worker as s»nl?v kLf^l''*'"" '.'PP""""' «" 


study of methods i8™ZiSecliZ.ffi!.!»„f''*'T; 7''" theoretical 
to observe carefuUrnnTintel iZ wTh ""'' •*V'^''"*/ "'^ ^^^''"<^ 
exemplified by smTtJnhJrl^fll ^ P"neipl9s of teaching as 
traini^ng inst^Ltor pS tetht' '?™t'' """} ^^ *•>« normal 
ferences in which the stnrflnf.^ " ^^^^^ followed by con- 
discussionsT A graduate iTthifl ™™"^««<«' *« '"ke part in the 
school diploma, Ssranorma^tr„?n"''"-'''''*'.^2""^ '^<''''^' « high 
Board good for two years th™oueWtT '^''f'^'ff'om the State 
evidence of successful einerhT V • '^*''*!- ^^PO" satisfactory 
State authoritiefwH tnTw the cerl^fic'i?' these two years, the 
five vprirs Tl,^ ""'renew ine certificate for a further neriod nf 

criU^r mad^uXie&uU''cr h°' :f''"'T -"^ "Ti:! 

usual academic high schoo lubiec f tT^'"'' ^'''''''''r '"""= <>' 'he 
a student devotes aCtone^sS^f ST*""?* *^'- '°'"' y*"^' 
sional work. (14: 43) Thh^uul u *'?! *i° '*"<'*'y P^f'''- 
time given to the.r wLle preDration bf ?V^'"'1''l*"°^ "f 
Model Schools in Ontario P™P""*'°" ''^ students of the Autumn 

Missouri werLuthorbedbfsJft T'^^ti.'^' '>'«'' '"hools of 
approved high scKl„ are .md^^iT '" J?-'^' '^""^ ""'' hundred 
that more than 3 000 hieh schll '^"^ this work with the result 
of rural schools Cng the la°? t^''^"''*"' '"'\^''^«r« ^"'<'^-'' 
Board of Education sflects one h^^^ IT'i F'"''"y. '""^ S*"'*^ 
each county to which «n L i * ^"^"^^ "^ superior type in 
event of a s^ond kL ,.^^^^1^*"* °^ *'^^ '« ^iven; ii the 
grant of 86M a veaf The i«/'"^ necessary, each receives a 
upon a minimum tSn<r ciL I? f aPfopriation is conditioned 
used towards payment ff fe si**'" f ".'^*°*? ""'* "P°" **« being 
at least $750 T~ Private fnTH"""' '^^"^ "^^'"^ """'* >>! 
eligible to open suc""class^rh„t tl d«"<"»™tionai schools are 
The purpose of the Missl^ri' no^L ■"^Z*'""'* '^'"^ ^^^^ aid. 
science and practice of teaching "1' *? T^^^^ '*'"'™'^ '" »*>« 
for the appointment of a s?ate^?r/t ^^^'i^'' P^^^n is made 
schools at a sala,^ no to exce^S^K) f *^''«'>%t™i?i°« in high 
mtendent prescribes admUSL. •' * ^'""'- ^^ S*ate Super- 
and the rules and re«iTa«ons lT"^^'"'!t' '^".""'.'^^ "^ instruction, 

until they make fnrm.T^ i ^^'' *°. **''« a°y twining classes 


for trX^X'S ' S'«"'->«eher' during ^ol^f Z'""'':- '« 

at a high schbot ^ Ji".'"^ ""J^o^P'-'t^d foVr "^:"t ^« receive 
diploma. The certifiT.t Z^" '"' ■« also entitled tf attendance 
for two years in »n*'* ,°' graduation is a St it^ t? " ''«*' school 
suceessfuf ^^ri^"^ '"''a' school of Miiomf After"'' *" '^ach 

eoSfetr/eaV'-^ ^""^ ^ ^S^'torte^rv:'^^^!!^'''''?,'^' 
Edu t ■ grade 

approximately 365 (L, t T°"' manifest obieetion^ K ^ ^«h 
schools of the IJnir? i^a^hers are required /„*,„,' *";' ^'"ce 
professionally tra^Sed.^***?.' ""'y about 122 Om'^P^ l*"" '"™' 
gency. a7'9firw'<.l'''""'thing must be done VT "' ''''om are 
schools every v;»r '"" ?2,000 new teachJir^ ""**•""' *''"«'r- 
be providlnnri ?h TS '^mediate m«tns of nr "^ '?*" rural 
easily adanff.? f *''^ ''■8'' school seeml^ h °5. P'^^'^Paration must 
reco^iz^te^t {"Jf ™r«''« the cCiigenev ' T''"*'"" ">«'* 


•' -I 


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1. Hodgins-Documentary History of Education i„ Ontario 

2. Repots of the Minister of Education for Ontario 

3. Putman-Egerton Ryeraon and Education in Upper Ca„»H. 

4. Acta of the Department of Education, ProviLe 'rOntZ 

5. Canada and its Provinces, Vol. XVIII 

6. Hodgins-Ryerson Memorial Volume. 

7. Tilley— Report Relative to the Training „f t u 

Matters. ifammg of Teachers and other 

8. Merchant-Report on the Condition of English Fr„n,h « k ■ 

m the Province of Ontario '^"«"*''-"«">«'' Schools 

9. Burwash-Egerton Ryerson. 

10. Karr-The Training of Teachers in Ontario.- 

'"'' %^rm':[scK'"" '"-'-'' '» ^^""in. State 
of Agricultural Education • 

12. McCready— Present Status 

15. -.Ht-TheRuralfcL":Z?rnr"" "-^- 

16. ^-"-The^Wisconsm County Training Schools for Teachers 

n. ^---^iC^i-^Ed.ation, ,«.,Vol. I. Bureau 

''■ ''"^^%I^«o»h:%tch^-« '" ^-™-« t^^- Q-ali- 

19. Millar-The School System of the State of New York 

20. Luckey-Professional Training of Teachers. 

21. Foght-The School System of Ontario.